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Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Abbas used to shorten the prayer when he travelled a distance equivalent to that between Makka and Ta'if, and that between Makka and Usfan and that between Makka and Jedda.
Malik said, "That is four mail-stages, and to me that is the most preferable distance for shortening the prayer."
Malik said, "Someone who intends to travel does not shorten the prayer until he has left the houses of the village. And he does not do it in full until he comes to the first houses of the village, or is nearby."
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، كَانَ يَقْصُرُ الصَّلاَةَ فِي مِثْلِ مَا بَيْنَ مَكَّةَ وَالطَّائِفِ وَفِي مِثْلِ مَا بَيْنَ مَكَّةَ وَعُسْفَانَ وَفِي مِثْلِ مَا بَيْنَ مَكَّةَ وَجُدَّةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ أَرْبَعَةُ بُرُدٍ وَذَلِكَ أَحَبُّ مَا تُقْصَرُ إِلَىَّ فِيهِ الصَّلاَةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ لاَ يَقْصُرُ الَّذِي يُرِيدُ السَّفَرَ الصَّلاَةَ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ مِنْ بُيُوتِ الْقَرْيَةِ وَلاَ يُتِمُّ حَتَّى يَدْخُلَ أَوَّلَ بُيُوتِ الْقَرْيَةِ أَوْ يُقَارِبُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏

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References

• Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Shortening the Prayer, Hadith 17