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Sunan Abi Dawood 4363
Narrated AbuBakr:

AbuBarzah said: I was with AbuBakr. He became angry at a man and uttered hot words. I said: Do you permit me, Caliph of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, that I cut off his neck? These words of mine removed his anger; he stood and went in. He then sent for me and said: What did you say just now? I said: (I had said:) Permit me that I cut off his neck. He said: Would you do it if I ordered you? I said: Yes. He said: No, I swear by Allah, this is not allowed for any man after Muhammad ﷺ.

Abu Dawud said: This is Yazid's version. Ahmad bin Hanbal said: That is, Abu Bakr has no powers to slay a man except for three reasons which the Messenger of Allah ﷺ had mentioned: disbelief after belief, fornication after marriage, or killing a man without (murdering) any man by him. The Prophet ﷺ had powers to kill.
حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ يُونُسَ، عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ هِلاَلٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ح وَحَدَّثَنَا هَارُونُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، وَنُصَيْرُ بْنُ الْفَرَجِ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ زُرَيْعٍ، عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ، عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ هِلاَلٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُطَرِّفٍ، عَنْ أَبِي بَرْزَةَ، قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فَتَغَيَّظَ عَلَى رَجُلٍ فَاشْتَدَّ عَلَيْهِ فَقُلْتُ تَأْذَنُ لِي يَا خَلِيفَةَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَضْرِبُ عُنُقَهُ قَالَ فَأَذْهَبَتْ كَلِمَتِي غَضَبَهُ فَقَامَ فَدَخَلَ فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَىَّ فَقَالَ مَا الَّذِي قُلْتَ آنِفًا قُلْتُ ائْذَنْ لِي أَضْرِبْ عُنُقَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَكُنْتَ فَاعِلاً لَوْ أَمَرْتُكَ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ لاَ وَاللَّهِ مَا كَانَتْ لِبَشَرٍ بَعْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ هَذَا لَفْظُ يَزِيدَ قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ أَىْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لأَبِي بَكْرٍ أَنْ يَقْتُلَ رَجُلاً إِلاَّ بِإِحْدَى الثَّلاَثِ الَّتِي قَالَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كُفْرٌ بَعْدَ إِيمَانٍ أَوْ زِنًا بَعْدَ إِحْصَانٍ أَوْ قَتْلُ نَفْسٍ بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ وَكَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ يَقْتُلَ ‏.‏

Classification

Sahih (Authentic)

References

• Sunan Abi Dawood 4363
• Sunan Abi Dawood Vol. 4, Book of Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim), Hadith 4350
• Sunan Abi Dawood, Book of Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim), Hadith 4350