Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions

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Volume 3
83 ahādīth
Narrated Abu Al-Bakhtari:

"An Army from the armies of the Muslims, whose commander was Salman Al-Farisi, besieged one of the Persian castles. They said: 'O Abu 'Abdullah! Should we charge them?' He said: 'Leave me to call them (to Islam) as I heard the Messenger of Allah ﷺ call them.' So Salman went to them and said: 'I am only a man from among you, a Persian, and you see that the Arabs obey me. If you become Muslims then you will have the likes of what we have, and from you will be required that which is required from us. If you refuse, and keep your religion, then we will leave you to it, and you will give us the Jizyah from your hands while you are submissive.' He said to them in Persian: 'And you are other than praiseworthy and if you refuse then we will equally resist you.' They said: 'We will not give you the Jizyah, we will fight you instead.' So they said: 'O Abu 'Abdullah! Should we charge them?' He said: 'No.'" He said: "So for three days he called them to the same (things), and then he said: 'Charge them.'" He said: "So we charged them, and we conquered the castle."
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ السَّائِبِ، عَنْ أَبِي الْبَخْتَرِيِّ، أَنَّ جَيْشًا، مِنْ جُيُوشِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَانَ أَمِيرَهُمْ سَلْمَانُ الْفَارِسِيُّ حَاصَرُوا قَصْرًا مِنْ قُصُورِ فَارِسَ فَقَالُوا يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَلاَ نَنْهَدُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَالَ دَعُونِي أَدْعُهُمْ كَمَا سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَدْعُوهُمْ ‏.‏ فَأَتَاهُمْ سَلْمَانُ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا رَجُلٌ مِنْكُمْ فَارِسِيٌّ تَرَوْنَ الْعَرَبَ يُطِيعُونَنِي فَإِنْ أَسْلَمْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ مِثْلُ الَّذِي لَنَا وَعَلَيْكُمْ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْنَا وَإِنْ أَبَيْتُمْ إِلاَّ دِينَكُمْ تَرَكْنَاكُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَأَعْطُونَا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَأَنْتُمْ صَاغِرُونَ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَرَطَنَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْفَارِسِيَّةِ وَأَنْتُمْ غَيْرُ مَحْمُودِينَ ‏.‏ وَإِنْ أَبَيْتُمْ نَابَذْنَاكُمْ عَلَى سَوَاءٍ ‏.‏ قَالُوا مَا نَحْنُ بِالَّذِي نُعْطِي الْجِزْيَةَ وَلَكِنَّا نُقَاتِلُكُمْ ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَلاَ نَنْهَدُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَالَ لاَ ‏.‏ فَدَعَاهُمْ ثَلاَثَةَ أَيَّامٍ إِلَى مِثْلِ هَذَا ثُمَّ قَالَ انْهَدُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَنَهَدْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فَفَتَحْنَا ذَلِكَ الْقَصْرَ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ بُرَيْدَةَ وَالنُّعْمَانِ بْنِ مُقَرِّنٍ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏.‏ وَحَدِيثُ سَلْمَانَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَطَاءِ بْنِ السَّائِبِ ‏.‏ وَسَمِعْتُ مُحَمَّدًا يَقُولُ أَبُو الْبَخْتَرِيِّ لَمْ يُدْرِكْ سَلْمَانَ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُدْرِكْ عَلِيًّا وَسَلْمَانُ مَاتَ قَبْلَ عَلِيٍّ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ ذَهَبَ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى هَذَا وَرَأَوْا أَنْ يُدْعَوْا قَبْلَ الْقِتَالِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ قَالَ إِنْ تُقُدِّمَ إِلَيْهِمْ فِي الدَّعْوَةِ فَحَسَنٌ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ أَهْيَبَ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ لاَ دِعْوَةَ الْيَوْمَ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ أَحْمَدُ لاَ أَعْرِفُ الْيَوْمَ أَحَدًا يُدْعَى ‏.‏ وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ لاَ يُقَاتَلُ الْعَدُوُّ حَتَّى يُدْعَوْا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَعْجَلُوا عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ فَقَدْ بَلَغَتْهُمُ الدَّعْوَةُ ‏.‏

Classification

Da`eef (Inauthentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1548
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1548
Narrated Ibn 'Asim Al-Muzani:

From his father and he was a Companion who said: "When the Messenger of Allah ﷺ dispatched any army or battalion, he would say to them: 'If you see a Masjid, or hear someone calling the Adhan, then do not kill anyone.'"
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى الْعَدَنِيُّ الْمَكِّيُّ، - وَيُكْنَى بِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الرَّجُلُ الصَّالِحُ هُوَ ابْنُ أَبِي عُمَرَ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ نَوْفَلِ بْنِ مُسَاحِقٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عِصَامٍ الْمُزَنِيِّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَكَانَتْ لَهُ صُحْبَةٌ قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا بَعَثَ جَيْشًا أَوْ سَرِيَّةً يَقُولُ لَهُمْ ‏ "‏ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مَسْجِدًا أَوْ سَمِعْتُمْ مُؤَذِّنًا فَلاَ تَقْتُلُوا أَحَدًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ وَهُوَ حَدِيثُ ابْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ ‏.‏

Classification

Da`eef (Inauthentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1549
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1549
Narrated Anas:

"When the Messenger of Allah ﷺ set out for Khaibar, he approached it at night and when he came to a people during the night, he would not attack them until morning. So when the morning came, the Jews came out with their shovels and baskets, then when they saw him, they said: 'Muhammad! By Allah Muhammad has come with the Khamis (an army).' So the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: 'Allahu Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach the land of people - then what an evil morning for those who have been warned.'"
حَدَّثَنَا الأَنْصَارِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مَعْنٌ، حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ حُمَيْدٍ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حِينَ خَرَجَ إِلَى خَيْبَرَ أَتَاهَا لَيْلاً وَكَانَ إِذَا جَاءَ قَوْمًا بِلَيْلٍ لَمْ يُغِرْ عَلَيْهِمْ حَتَّى يُصْبِحَ فَلَمَّا أَصْبَحَ خَرَجَتْ يَهُودُ بِمَسَاحِيهِمْ وَمَكَاتِلِهِمْ فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهُ قَالُوا مُحَمَّدٌ وَافَقَ وَاللَّهِ مُحَمَّدٌ الْخَمِيسَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ خَرِبَتْ خَيْبَرُ إِنَّا إِذَا نَزَلْنَا بِسَاحَةِ قَوْمٍ فَسَاءَ صَبَاحُ الْمُنْذَرِينَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Classification

Sahih (Authentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1550
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1550
Narrated Abu Talhah:

"When the Prophet ﷺ overtook a people he would stay at the outskirts of their city for three nights."
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا ظَهَرَ عَلَى قَوْمٍ أَقَامَ بِعَرْصَتِهِمْ ثَلاَثًا ‏.‏

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَحَدِيثُ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَنَسٍ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رَخَّصَ قَوْمٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ فِي الْغَارَةِ بِاللَّيْلِ وَأَنْ يَبِيتُوا وَكَرِهَهُ بَعْضُهُمْ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ أَحْمَدُ وَإِسْحَاقُ لاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُبَيَّتَ الْعَدُوُّ لَيْلاً ‏.‏ وَمَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ وَافَقَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْخَمِيسَ يَعْنِي بِهِ الْجَيْشَ ‏.‏

Classification

Sahih (Authentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1551
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1551
Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

"The Messenger of Allah ﷺ burnt the palm trees of Bani Nadir and cut them down at Al-Buwairah. So Allah revealed: Whatever you cut down of their palm trees, or you left them standing on their trunks, then it was by the permission of Allah, and in the order to disgrace the rebellious.(59:5)"
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَرَّقَ نَخْلَ بَنِي النَّضِيرِ وَقَطَعَ وَهِيَ الْبُوَيْرَةُ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ مَا قَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ لِينَةٍ أَوْ تَرَكْتُمُوهَا قَائِمَةً عَلَى أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَلِيُخْزِيَ الْفَاسِقِينَ ‏)‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏.‏ وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ ذَهَبَ قَوْمٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ إِلَى هَذَا وَلَمْ يَرَوْا بَأْسًا بِقَطْعِ الأَشْجَارِ وَتَخْرِيبِ الْحُصُونِ ‏.‏ وَكَرِهَ بَعْضُهُمْ ذَلِكَ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الأَوْزَاعِيِّ ‏.‏ قَالَ الأَوْزَاعِيُّ وَنَهَى أَبُو بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقُ يَزِيدَ أَنْ يَقْطَعَ شَجَرًا مُثْمِرًا أَوْ يُخَرِّبَ عَامِرًا وَعَمِلَ بِذَلِكَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ بَعْدَهُ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ لاَ بَأْسَ بِالتَّحْرِيقِ فِي أَرْضِ الْعَدُوِّ وَقَطْعِ الأَشْجَارِ وَالثِّمَارِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ أَحْمَدُ وَقَدْ تَكُونُ فِي مَوَاضِعَ لاَ يَجِدُونَ مِنْهُ بُدًّا فَأَمَّا بِالْعَبَثِ فَلاَ تُحَرَّقُ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ إِسْحَاقُ التَّحْرِيقُ سُنَّةٌ إِذَا كَانَ أَنْكَى فِيهِمْ ‏.‏

Classification

Sahih (Authentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1552
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1552
Narrated Abu Umamah:

That the Prophet ﷺ said: "Verily, Allah has honored me over the (other) Prophets" - or he said: "My nation over the nations, and He has made the spoils of war lawful for us."
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ الْمُحَارِبِيُّ الْكُوفِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا أَسْبَاطُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ التَّيْمِيِّ، عَنْ سَيَّارٍ، عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ فَضَّلَنِي عَلَى الأَنْبِيَاءِ أَوْ قَالَ أُمَّتِي عَلَى الأُمَمِ وَأَحَلَّ لَنَا الْغَنَائِمَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ وَأَبِي ذَرٍّ وَعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو وَأَبِي مُوسَى وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏.‏

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَسَيَّارٌ هَذَا يُقَالُ لَهُ سَيَّارٌ مَوْلَى بَنِي مُعَاوِيَةَ ‏.‏ وَرَوَى عَنْهُ سُلَيْمَانُ التَّيْمِيُّ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ بَحِيرٍ وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ ‏.‏

Classification

Hasan (Good)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1553
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1553
Another chain from Abu Hurairah who narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said:

"I have been honored over the Prophets with six (things): I have been given Jawami' Al-Kalam, I have been aided by (the ability to cause in the enemy) fright, the spoils of war have been made lawful for me, the Earth has been made as a Masjid and purifier for me, and I have been sent to all creatures, and with me Prophethood is sealed."

Classification

Hasan (Good)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1553b
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1553b
Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

"The Messenger of Allah ﷺ divided the spoils as two shares for the horse and one share for the man."
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدَةَ الضَّبِّيُّ، وَحُمَيْدُ بْنُ مَسْعَدَةَ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمُ بْنُ أَخْضَرَ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَسَمَ فِي النَّفَلِ لِلْفَرَسِ بِسَهْمَيْنِ وَلِلرَّجُلِ بِسَهْمٍ ‏.‏

Classification

Sahih (Authentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1554
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1554
Another chain with similar meaning.

There are narrations on this topic from Mujammi' bin Jariyah, Ibn 'Abbas, and Ibn Abi 'Amrah from his father. This Hadith of Ibn 'Umar is a Hasan Sahih Hadith. This is acted upon according to most of the people of knowledge among the Companions of the Prophet ﷺ and others.

This is the view of Sufyan At-Thawri, Al-Awzai', Malik bin Anas, Ibn Al-Mubarak, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad and Ishaq. They said that the horsemen gets three shares, one share is for him and two shares for his horse. The foot soldiers get one share.

Classification

No Data

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1554b
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1554b
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

That the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "The best companions are four, the best Saraya (military unit) is four hundred, the best army is four thousand, and twelve thousand will not be beaten due to being too few."

This Hadith is Hasan Gharib, it was not narrated with a chain by anyone important besides Jarir bin Hazim, and this Hadith was only reported from Az-Zuhri, from the Prophet ﷺ in Mursal form. Hibban bin 'Ali Al-'Anazi reported it from 'Uqail, from Az-Zuhri, from 'Ubaidullah, from 'Ibn Abbas, from the Prophet ﷺ, and Al-Laith bin Sa'd reported it from Sa'd, from 'Uqail, from Az-Zuhri, from the Prophet ﷺ in the Mursal form.
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى الأَزْدِيُّ الْبَصْرِيُّ، وَأَبُو عَمَّارٍ وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا وَهْبُ بْنُ جَرِيرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ خَيْرُ الصَّحَابَةِ أَرْبَعَةٌ وَخَيْرُ السَّرَايَا أَرْبَعُمِائَةٍ وَخَيْرُ الْجُيُوشِ أَرْبَعَةُ آلاَفٍ وَلاَ يُغْلَبُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَلْفًا مِنْ قِلَّةٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ يُسْنِدُهُ كَبِيرُ أَحَدٍ غَيْرُ جَرِيرِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ وَإِنَّمَا رُوِيَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثُ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُرْسَلاً ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رَوَاهُ حِبَّانُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْعَنَزِيُّ عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ وَرَوَاهُ اللَّيْثُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُرْسَلاً ‏.‏

Classification

Da`eef (Inauthentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1555
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Military Expeditions, Hadith 1555