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Narrated Hakim b. Hizam:

"The Messenger of Allah ﷺ prohibited me from selling what was not with me."

[Abu 'Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan. He said: There is something on this topic from 'Abdullah bin 'Umar.

Ishaq bin Mansur said: "I said to Ahmad: 'What is the meaning of the prohibition from a loan along with a sale? He said: 'That he gives him a loan and then he makes a sale to him greater then it's actual worth. And, it carries the meaning of him loaning it to him in exchange for something (as collateral), so he says: 'If you are unable to pay it (the loan), the it (the collateral) will be a sale for you.' Ishaq [bin Rahuwyah] said as he said. And I said to Ahmad: 'What about selling what one does not possess?' He said: 'To me it does not apply except in cases of food - meaning one has not taken possession of it.' And Ishaq said the same for all of what is measured or weighed. Ahmad said: 'When he says: "I will sell you this garment, with the condition that I am the tailor for it, and I am the one who bleaches it.' This is an example of two conditions in one sale. But if he says: "I am selling it to you with the condition that I am its tailor," then there is no harm in it. And, if he said: "I am selling it to you with the condition that I am the one who bleaches it" then there is no harm in it, because this is only one condition.' And Ishaq said as he said."
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ مَاهَكَ، عَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ حِزَامٍ، قَالَ نَهَانِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ أَبِيعَ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدِي ‏.‏

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ قُلْتُ لأَحْمَدَ مَا مَعْنَى نَهَى عَنْ سَلَفٍ وَبَيْعٍ قَالَ أَنْ يَكُونَ يُقْرِضُهُ قَرْضًا ثُمَّ يُبَايِعُهُ عَلَيْهِ بَيْعًا يَزْدَادُ عَلَيْهِ وَيَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ يُسْلِفُ إِلَيْهِ فِي شَيْءٍ فَيَقُولُ إِنْ لَمْ يَتَهَيَّأْ عِنْدَكَ فَهُوَ بَيْعٌ عَلَيْكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ إِسْحَاقُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ رَاهَوَيْهِ كَمَا قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَحْمَدَ وَعَنْ بَيْعِ مَا لَمْ تَضْمَنْ قَالَ لاَ يَكُونُ عِنْدِي إِلاَّ فِي الطَّعَامِ مَا لَمْ تَقْبِضْ ‏.‏ قَالَ إِسْحَاقُ كَمَا قَالَ فِي كُلِّ مَا يُكَالُ أَوْ يُوزَنُ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَحْمَدُ إِذَا قَالَ أَبِيعُكَ هَذَا الثَّوْبَ وَعَلَىَّ خِيَاطَتُهُ وَقَصَارَتُهُ فَهَذَا مِنْ نَحْوِ شَرْطَيْنِ فِي بَيْعٍ وَإِذَا قَالَ أَبِيعُكَهُ وَعَلَىَّ خِيَاطَتُهُ فَلاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ أَوْ قَالَ أَبِيعُكَهُ وَعَلَىَّ قَصَارَتُهُ فَلاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ إِنَّمَا هُوَ شَرْطٌ وَاحِدٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ إِسْحَاقُ كَمَا قَالَ ‏.‏

Classification

Sahih (Authentic)

References

• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, Book of Business, Hadith 1233
• Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of Business, Hadith 1233