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Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) reports:
"The Quraysh observed the fast of 'Aa-shura in the days of jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaarnic period of ignorance). Messenger of Allah ﷺ also observed this fast (before the hijrah as a nafl). (After the hijrah) when he came to Madinah Munawwarah he observed these and commanded the ummah also to observe it. When the command to fast in Ramadaan was revealed, it was proclaimed fard, and the fast of 'Aa-shura became nafl. Those who wished, observed them ('Aa-shura) and those who did not, omitted them.
حَدَّثَنَا هَارُونُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ الْهَمْدَانِيُّ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ‏:‏ كَانَ عَاشُورَاءُ يَوْمًا تَصُومُهُ قُرَيْشٌ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَصُومُهُ، فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ صَامَهُ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ، فَلَمَّا افْتُرِضَ رَمَضَانُ كَانَ رَمَضَانُ هُوَ الْفَرِيضَةُ وَتُرِكَ عَاشُورَاءُ، فَمَنْ شَاءَ صَامَهُ وَمَنْ شَاءَ تَرَكَهُ‏.‏

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References

• Shama'il al-Muhammadiya, Book of The Fasting Of Prophet of Allah ﷺ, Hadith 292