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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements

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71 ahādīth

Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father from Zaynab bint Abi Salama from Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I am but a man to whom you bring your disputes. Perhaps one of you is more eloquent in his proof than the other, so I give judgement according to what I have heard from him. Whatever I decide for him which is part of the right of his brother, he must not take any of it, for I am granting him a portion of the Fire."

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ زَيْنَبَ بِنْتِ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ وَإِنَّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُونَ إِلَىَّ فَلَعَلَّ بَعْضَكُمْ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَلْحَنَ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَأَقْضِيَ لَهُ عَلَى نَحْوِ مَا أَسْمَعُ مِنْهُ فَمَنْ قَضَيْتُ لَهُ بِشَىْءٍ مِنْ حَقِّ أَخِيهِ فَلاَ يَأْخُذَنَّ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا فَإِنَّمَا أَقْطَعُ لَهُ قِطْعَةً مِنَ النَّارِ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 1

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said from Said ibn al-Musayyab that Umar ibn al-Khattab had a dispute brought to him between a muslim and a jew. Umar saw that the right belonged to the jew and decided in his favour. The jew said to him, "By Allah! You have judged correctly.'' So Umar ibn al-Khattab struck him with a whip and said, "How can you be sure." The jew said to him, "We find that there is no judge who judges correctly but that there is an angel on his right side and an angel on his left side who guide him and give him success in the truth as long as he is with the truth. When he leaves the truth, they rise and leave him."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، اخْتَصَمَ إِلَيْهِ مُسْلِمٌ وَيَهُودِيٌّ فَرَأَى عُمَرُ أَنَّ الْحَقَّ لِلْيَهُودِيِّ فَقَضَى لَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْيَهُودِيُّ وَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ قَضَيْتَ بِالْحَقِّ . فَضَرَبَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ بِالدِّرَّةِ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْيَهُودِيُّ إِنَّا نَجِدُ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ قَاضٍ يَقْضِي بِالْحَقِّ إِلاَّ كَانَ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ مَلَكٌ وَعَنْ شِمَالِهِ مَلَكٌ يُسَدِّدَانِهِ وَيُوَفِّقَانِهِ لِلْحَقِّ مَادَامَ مَعَ الْحَقِّ فَإِذَا تَرَكَ الْحَقَّ عَرَجَا وَتَرَكَاهُ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 2

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Hazm from his father from Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Uthman from Abu Amra al-Ansari from Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Shall I not tell you who is the best of witnesses? The one who brings his testimony before he is asked for it, or tells his testimony before he is asked for it."

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ حَزْمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرَةَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ الْجُهَنِيِّ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " أَلاَ أُخْبِرُكُمْ بِخَيْرِ الشُّهَدَاءِ الَّذِي يَأْتِي بِشَهَادَتِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُسْأَلَهَا أَوْ يُخْبِرُ بِشَهَادَتِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُسْأَلَهَا " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 3

Malik related to me that Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman said, "An Iraqi man came before Umar ibn al-Khattab and said, 'I have come to you because of a matter which has no beginning and no end.' Umar said, 'What is it?' The man said, 'False testimony has appeared in our land.' Umar said, 'Is that so?' He said, 'Yes.' Umar said, 'By Allah! A man is not detained in Islam without just witnesses.' "

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَدِمَ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ فَقَالَ لَقَدْ جِئْتُكَ لأَمْرٍ مَا لَهُ رَأْسٌ وَلاَ ذَنَبٌ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ مَا هُوَ قَالَ شَهَادَاتُ الزُّورِ ظَهَرَتْ بِأَرْضِنَا . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ أَوَقَدْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ نَعَمْ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ وَاللَّهِ لاَ يُؤْسَرُ رَجُلٌ فِي الإِسْلاَمِ بِغَيْرِ الْعُدُولِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 4

Malik related to me that Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "The testimony of some one known to bear a grudge or to be unreliable is not accepted."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَدِمَ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ فَقَالَ لَقَدْ جِئْتُكَ لأَمْرٍ مَا لَهُ رَأْسٌ وَلاَ ذَنَبٌ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ مَا هُوَ قَالَ شَهَادَاتُ الزُّورِ ظَهَرَتْ بِأَرْضِنَا . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ أَوَقَدْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ نَعَمْ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ وَاللَّهِ لاَ يُؤْسَرُ رَجُلٌ فِي الإِسْلاَمِ بِغَيْرِ الْعُدُولِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 4

Yahya said from Malik that he heard from Sulayman ibn Yasar and others that when they were asked whether the testimony of a man flogged for a hadd crime was permitted, they said, "Yes, when repentance (tawba) appears from him."
Malik related to me that he heard Ibn Shihab being asked about that and he said the like of what Sulayman ibn Yasar said.
Malik said, "That is what is done in our community. It is by the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, 'And those who accuse women who are muhsan, and then do not bring four witnesses, flog them with eighty lashes, and do not accept any testimony of theirs ever. They indeed are evil-doers, save those who turn in tawba after that and make amends. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.' " (Sura 24 ayat 4).

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَدِمَ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ فَقَالَ لَقَدْ جِئْتُكَ لأَمْرٍ مَا لَهُ رَأْسٌ وَلاَ ذَنَبٌ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ مَا هُوَ قَالَ شَهَادَاتُ الزُّورِ ظَهَرَتْ بِأَرْضِنَا . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ أَوَقَدْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ نَعَمْ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ وَاللَّهِ لاَ يُؤْسَرُ رَجُلٌ فِي الإِسْلاَمِ بِغَيْرِ الْعُدُولِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 4

Yahya said, "Malik said from Jafar ibn Muhammad from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pronounced judgement on the basis of an oath with one witness."

قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَضَى بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 5

From Malik from Abu'z-Zinad that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to Abd al-Hamid ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn al-Khattab who was the governor of Kufa, "Pronounce judgement on the basis of an oath with one witness."

وَعَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، كَتَبَ إِلَى عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ وَهُوَ عَامِلٌ عَلَى الْكُوفَةِ أَنِ اقْضِ بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 6

Malik related to me that he heard that Abu Salama ibn Abd ar- Rahman and Sulayman ibn Yasar were both asked, "Does one pronounce judgement on the basis of an oath with one witness?" They both said, "Yes."
Malik said, "The precedent of the sunna in judging by an oath with one witness is that if the plaintiff takes an oath with his witness, he is confirmed in his right. If he draws back and refuses to take an oath, the defendant is made to take an oath. If he takes an oath, the claim against him is dropped. If he refuses to take an oath, the claim is confirmed against him."
Malik said, "This procedure pertains to property cases in particular. It does not occur in any of the hadd-punishments, nor in marriage, divorce, freeing slaves, theft or slander. If some one says, 'Freeing slaves comes under property,' he has erred. It is not as he said. Had it been as he said, a slave could take an oath with one witness, if he could find one, that his master had freed him.
"However, when a slave lays claim to a piece of property, he can take an oath with one witness and demand his right as the freeman demands his right."
Malik said, "The sunna with us is that when a slave brings somebody who witnesses that he has been set free, his master is made to take an oath that he has not freed him, and the slave's claim is dropped."
Malik said, "The sunna about divorce is also like that with us. When a woman brings somebody who witnesses that her husband has divorced her, the husband is made to take an oath that he has not divorced her. If he takes the oath, the divorce does not proceed . "
Malik said, "There is only one sunna of bringing a witness in cases of divorce and freeing a slave. The right to make an oath only belongs to the husband of the woman, and the master of the slave. Freeing is a hadd matter, and the testimony of women is not permitted in it because when a slave is freed, his inviolability is affirmed and the hadd punishments are applied for and against him. If he commits fornication and he is a muhsan, he is stoned. If he kills a slave, he is killed for it. Inheritance is established for him, between him and whoever inherits from him. If somebody disputes this, arguing that if a man frees his slave and then a man comes to demand from the master of the slave payment of a debt, and a man and two women testify to his right, that establishes the right against the master of the slave so that his freeing him is cancelled if he only has the slave as property, inferring by this case that the testimony of women is permitted in cases of setting free. The case is not as he suggests (i.e. it is a case of property not freeing). It is like a man who frees his slave, and then the claimant of a debt comes to the master and takes an oath with one witness, demanding his right. By that, the freeing of the slave would be cancelled. Or else a man comes who has frequent dealings and transactions with the master of the slave. He claims that he is owed money by the master of the slave. Someone says to the master of the slave, 'Take an oath that you don't owe what he claims'. If he draws back and refuses to take an oath, the one making the claim takes an oath and his right against the master of the slave is confirmed. That would cancel the freeing of the slave if it is confirmed that property is owed by the master."
Malik said, "It is the same case with a man who marries a slave-girl and then the master of the slave-girl comes to the man who has married her and claims, 'You and so-and-so have bought my slave-girl from me for such an amount of dinars. The husband of the slave-girl denies that. The master of the slave-girl brings a man and two women and they testify to what he has said. The sale is confirmed and his claim is considered true. So the slave-girl is haram for her husband and they have to separate, even though the testimony of women is not accepted in divorce."
Malik said, "It is also the same case with a man who accuses a free man, so the hadd falls on him. A man and two women come and testify that the one accused is a slave. That would remove the hadd from the accused after it had befallen him, even though the testimony of women is not accepted in accusations involving hadd punishments."
Malik said, "Another similar case in which judgement appears to go against the precedent of the sunna is that two women testify that a child is born alive and so it is necessary for him to inherit if a situation arises where he is entitled to inherit, and the child's property goes to those who inherit from him, if he dies, and it is not necessary that the two women witnesses should be accompanied by a man or an oath even though it may involve vast properties of gold, silver, live-stock, gardens and slaves and other properties. However, had two women testified to one dirham or more or less than that in a property case, their testimony would not affect anything and would not be permitted unless there was a witness or an oath with them."
Malik said, "There are people who say that an oath is not acceptable with only one witness and they argue by the word of Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, and His word is the Truth, 'And call in to witness two witnesses, men; or if the two be not men, then one man and two women, such witnesses as you approve of.' (Sura 2 ayat 282). Such people argue that if he does not bring one man and two women, he has no claim and he is not allowed to take an oath with one witness."
Malik said, "Part of the proof against those who argue this, is to reply to them, 'Do you think that if a man claimed property from a man, the one claimed from would not swear that the claim was false?' If he swears, the claim against him is dropped. If he refuses to take an oath, the claimant is made to take an oath that his claim is true, and his right against his companion is established. There is no dispute about this with any of the people nor in any country. By what does he take this? In what place in the Book of Allah does he find it? So if he confirms this, let him confirm the oath with one witness, even if it is not in the Book of Allah, the Mighty, the Majestic! It is enough that this is the precedent of the sunna. However, man wants to recognise the proper course of action and the location of the proof. In this there is a clarification for what is obscure about that, if Allah ta'ala wills."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سَلَمَةَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، سُئِلاَ هَلْ يُقْضَى بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ فَقَالاَ نَعَمْ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ فِي الْقَضَاءِ بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ الْوَاحِدِ يَحْلِفُ صَاحِبُ الْحَقِّ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ وَيَسْتَحِقُّ حَقَّهُ فَإِنْ نَكَلَ وَأَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ أُحْلِفَ الْمَطْلُوبُ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ سَقَطَ عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ الْحَقُّ وَإِنْ أَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ ثَبَتَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ لِصَاحِبِهِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِي الأَمْوَالِ خَاصَّةً وَلاَ يَقَعُ ذَلِكَ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنَ الْحُدُودِ وَلاَ فِي نِكَاحٍ وَلاَ فِي طَلاَقٍ وَلاَ فِي عَتَاقَةٍ وَلاَ فِي سَرِقَةٍ وَلاَ فِي فِرْيَةٍ فَإِنْ قَالَ قَائِلٌ فَإِنَّ الْعَتَاقَةَ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ . فَقَدْ أَخْطَأَ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ لَحَلَفَ الْعَبْدُ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ أَنَّ سَيِّدَهُ أَعْتَقَهُ وَأَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ عَلَى مَالٍ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ ادَّعَاهُ حَلَفَ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ وَاسْتَحَقَّ حَقَّهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُ الْحُرُّ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَالسُّنَّةُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ عَلَى عَتَاقَتِهِ اسْتُحْلِفَ سَيِّدُهُ مَا أَعْتَقَهُ وَبَطَلَ ذَلِكَ عَنْهُ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ السُّنَّةُ عِنْدَنَا أَيْضًا فِي الطَّلاَقِ إِذَا جَاءَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ بِشَاهِدٍ أَنَّ زَوْجَهَا طَلَّقَهَا أُحْلِفَ زَوْجُهَا مَا طَلَّقَهَا فَإِذَا حَلَفَ لَمْ يَقَعْ عَلَيْهِ الطَّلاَقُ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَسُنَّةُ الطَّلاَقِ وَالْعَتَاقَةِ فِي الشَّاهِدِ الْوَاحِدِ وَاحِدَةٌ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ الْيَمِينُ عَلَى زَوْجِ الْمَرْأَةِ وَعَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ وَإِنَّمَا الْعَتَاقَةُ حَدٌّ مِنَ الْحُدُودِ لاَ تَجُوزُ فِيهَا شَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ لأَنَّهُ إِذَا عَتَقَ الْعَبْدُ ثَبَتَتْ حُرْمَتُهُ وَوَقَعَتْ لَهُ الْحُدُودُ وَوَقَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ زَنَى وَقَدْ أُحْصِنَ رُجِمَ وَإِنْ قَتَلَ الْعَبْدَ قُتِلَ بِهِ وَثَبَتَ لَهُ الْمِيرَاثُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ مَنْ يُوَارِثُهُ فَإِنِ احْتَجَّ مُحْتَجٌّ فَقَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً أَعْتَقَ عَبْدَهُ وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ يَطْلُبُ سَيِّدَ الْعَبْدِ بِدَيْنٍ لَهُ عَلَيْهِ فَشَهِدَ لَهُ عَلَى حَقِّهِ ذَلِكَ رَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ يُثْبِتُ الْحَقَّ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ حَتَّى تُرَدَّ بِهِ عَتَاقَتُهُ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِسَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ مَالٌ غَيْرُ الْعَبْدِ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُجِيزَ بِذَلِكَ شَهَادَةَ النِّسَاءِ فِي الْعَتَاقَةِ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَيْسَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ ذَلِكَ الرَّجُلُ يَعْتِقُ عَبْدَهُ ثُمَّ يَأْتِي طَالِبُ الْحَقِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ بِشَاهِدٍ وَاحِدٍ فَيَحْلِفُ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ ثُمَّ يَسْتَحِقُّ حَقَّهُ وَتُرَدُّ بِذَلِكَ عَتَاقَةُ الْعَبْدِ أَوْ يَأْتِي الرَّجُلُ قَدْ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ مُخَالَطَةٌ وَمُلاَبَسَةٌ فَيَزْعُمُ أَنَّ لَهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ مَالاً فَيُقَالُ لِسَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ احْلِفْ مَا عَلَيْكَ مَا ادَّعَى فَإِنْ نَكَلَ وَأَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ حُلِّفَ صَاحِبُ الْحَقِّ وَثَبَتَ حَقُّهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ فَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ يَرُدُّ عَتَاقَةَ الْعَبْدِ إِذَا ثَبَتَ الْمَالُ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ . قَالَ وَكَذَلِكَ أَيْضًا الرَّجُلُ يَنْكِحُ الأَمَةَ فَتَكُونُ امْرَأَتَهُ فَيَأْتِي سَيِّدُ الأَمَةِ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي تَزَوَّجَهَا فَيَقُولُ ابْتَعْتَ مِنِّي جَارِيَتِي فُلاَنَةَ أَنْتَ وَفُلاَنٌ بِكَذَا وَكَذَا دِينَارًا . فَيُنْكِرُ ذَلِكَ زَوْجُ الأَمَةِ فَيَأْتِي سَيِّدُ الأَمَةِ بِرَجُلٍ وَامْرَأَتَيْنِ فَيَشْهَدُونَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ فَيَثْبُتُ بَيْعُهُ وَيَحِقُّ حَقُّهُ وَتَحْرُمُ الأَمَةُ عَلَى زَوْجِهَا وَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِرَاقًا بَيْنَهُمَا وَشَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ لاَ تَجُوزُ فِي الطَّلاَقِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِنْ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا الرَّجُلُ يَفْتَرِي عَلَى الرَّجُلِ الْحُرِّ فَيَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدُّ فَيَأْتِي رَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ فَيَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ الَّذِي افْتُرِيَ عَلَيْهِ عَبْدٌ مَمْلُوكٌ فَيَضَعُ ذَلِكَ الْحَدَّ عَنِ الْمُفْتَرِي بَعْدَ أَنْ وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِ وَشَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ لاَ تَجُوزُ فِي الْفِرْيَةِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِمَّا يُشْبِهُ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا مِمَّا يَفْتَرِقُ فِيهِ الْقَضَاءُ وَمَا مَضَى مِنَ السُّنَّةِ أَنَّ الْمَرْأَتَيْنِ يَشْهَدَانِ عَلَى اسْتِهْلاَلِ الصَّبِيِّ فَيَجِبُ بِذَلِكَ مِيرَاثُهُ حَتَّى يَرِثَ وَيَكُونُ مَالُهُ لِمَنْ يَرِثُهُ إِنْ مَاتَ الصَّبِيُّ وَلَيْسَ مَعَ الْمَرْأَتَيْنِ اللَّتَيْنِ شَهِدَتَا رَجُلٌ وَلاَ يَمِينٌ وَقَدْ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِي الأَمْوَالِ الْعِظَامِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ وَالرِّبَاعِ وَالْحَوَائِطِ وَالرَّقِيقِ وَمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ وَلَوْ شَهِدَتِ امْرَأَتَانِ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ وَاحِدٍ أَوْ أَقَلَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ لَمْ تَقْطَعْ شَهَادَتُهُمَا شَيْئًا وَلَمْ تَجُزْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَعَهُمَا شَاهِدٌ أَوْ يَمِينٌ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ لاَ تَكُونُ الْيَمِينُ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ الْوَاحِدِ . وَيَحْتَجُّ بِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَقَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ {وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّنْ تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ} يَقُولُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَأْتِ بِرَجُلٍ وَامْرَأَتَيْنِ فَلاَ شَىْءَ لَهُ وَلاَ يُحَلَّفُ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَمِنَ الْحُجَّةِ عَلَى مَنْ قَالَ ذَلِكَ الْقَوْلَ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَهُ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً ادَّعَى عَلَى رَجُلٍ مَالاً أَلَيْسَ يَحْلِفُ الْمَطْلُوبُ مَا ذَلِكَ الْحَقُّ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ بَطَلَ ذَلِكَ عَنْهُ وَإِنْ نَكَلَ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ حُلِّفَ صَاحِبُ الْحَقِّ إِنَّ حَقَّهُ لَحَقٌّ . وَثَبَتَ حَقُّهُ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ فَهَذَا مَا لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَ أَحَدٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلاَ بِبَلَدٍ مِنَ الْبُلْدَانِ فَبِأَىِّ شَىْءٍ أَخَذَ هَذَا أَوْ فِي أَىِّ مَوْضِعٍ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَجَدَهُ فَإِنْ أَقَرَّ بِهَذَا فَلْيُقْرِرْ بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَأَنَّهُ لَيَكْفِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا مَضَى مِنَ السُّنَّةِ وَلَكِنِ الْمَرْءُ قَدْ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يَعْرِفَ وَجْهَ الصَّوَابِ وَمَوْقِعَ الْحُجَّةِ فَفِي هَذَا بَيَانُ مَا أَشْكَلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى .

Classification

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References

Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 7

Yahya said that Malik spoke about a man who died and had a debt owing to him and there was one witness, and some people had a debt against him and they had only one witness, and his heirs refused to take an oath on their rights with their witness. He said, "The creditors take an oath and take their rights. If there is anything left over, the heirs do not take any of it. That is because the oaths were offered to them before and they abandoned them, unless they say, 'We did not know that our companion had extra,' and it is known that they only abandoned the oaths because of that. I think that they should take an oath and take what remains after his debt."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سَلَمَةَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، سُئِلاَ هَلْ يُقْضَى بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ فَقَالاَ نَعَمْ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ فِي الْقَضَاءِ بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ الْوَاحِدِ يَحْلِفُ صَاحِبُ الْحَقِّ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ وَيَسْتَحِقُّ حَقَّهُ فَإِنْ نَكَلَ وَأَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ أُحْلِفَ الْمَطْلُوبُ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ سَقَطَ عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ الْحَقُّ وَإِنْ أَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ ثَبَتَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ لِصَاحِبِهِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِي الأَمْوَالِ خَاصَّةً وَلاَ يَقَعُ ذَلِكَ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنَ الْحُدُودِ وَلاَ فِي نِكَاحٍ وَلاَ فِي طَلاَقٍ وَلاَ فِي عَتَاقَةٍ وَلاَ فِي سَرِقَةٍ وَلاَ فِي فِرْيَةٍ فَإِنْ قَالَ قَائِلٌ فَإِنَّ الْعَتَاقَةَ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ . فَقَدْ أَخْطَأَ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ لَحَلَفَ الْعَبْدُ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ أَنَّ سَيِّدَهُ أَعْتَقَهُ وَأَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ عَلَى مَالٍ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ ادَّعَاهُ حَلَفَ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ وَاسْتَحَقَّ حَقَّهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُ الْحُرُّ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَالسُّنَّةُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ عَلَى عَتَاقَتِهِ اسْتُحْلِفَ سَيِّدُهُ مَا أَعْتَقَهُ وَبَطَلَ ذَلِكَ عَنْهُ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ السُّنَّةُ عِنْدَنَا أَيْضًا فِي الطَّلاَقِ إِذَا جَاءَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ بِشَاهِدٍ أَنَّ زَوْجَهَا طَلَّقَهَا أُحْلِفَ زَوْجُهَا مَا طَلَّقَهَا فَإِذَا حَلَفَ لَمْ يَقَعْ عَلَيْهِ الطَّلاَقُ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَسُنَّةُ الطَّلاَقِ وَالْعَتَاقَةِ فِي الشَّاهِدِ الْوَاحِدِ وَاحِدَةٌ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ الْيَمِينُ عَلَى زَوْجِ الْمَرْأَةِ وَعَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ وَإِنَّمَا الْعَتَاقَةُ حَدٌّ مِنَ الْحُدُودِ لاَ تَجُوزُ فِيهَا شَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ لأَنَّهُ إِذَا عَتَقَ الْعَبْدُ ثَبَتَتْ حُرْمَتُهُ وَوَقَعَتْ لَهُ الْحُدُودُ وَوَقَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ زَنَى وَقَدْ أُحْصِنَ رُجِمَ وَإِنْ قَتَلَ الْعَبْدَ قُتِلَ بِهِ وَثَبَتَ لَهُ الْمِيرَاثُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ مَنْ يُوَارِثُهُ فَإِنِ احْتَجَّ مُحْتَجٌّ فَقَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً أَعْتَقَ عَبْدَهُ وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ يَطْلُبُ سَيِّدَ الْعَبْدِ بِدَيْنٍ لَهُ عَلَيْهِ فَشَهِدَ لَهُ عَلَى حَقِّهِ ذَلِكَ رَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ يُثْبِتُ الْحَقَّ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ حَتَّى تُرَدَّ بِهِ عَتَاقَتُهُ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِسَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ مَالٌ غَيْرُ الْعَبْدِ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُجِيزَ بِذَلِكَ شَهَادَةَ النِّسَاءِ فِي الْعَتَاقَةِ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَيْسَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ ذَلِكَ الرَّجُلُ يَعْتِقُ عَبْدَهُ ثُمَّ يَأْتِي طَالِبُ الْحَقِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ بِشَاهِدٍ وَاحِدٍ فَيَحْلِفُ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ ثُمَّ يَسْتَحِقُّ حَقَّهُ وَتُرَدُّ بِذَلِكَ عَتَاقَةُ الْعَبْدِ أَوْ يَأْتِي الرَّجُلُ قَدْ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ مُخَالَطَةٌ وَمُلاَبَسَةٌ فَيَزْعُمُ أَنَّ لَهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ مَالاً فَيُقَالُ لِسَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ احْلِفْ مَا عَلَيْكَ مَا ادَّعَى فَإِنْ نَكَلَ وَأَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ حُلِّفَ صَاحِبُ الْحَقِّ وَثَبَتَ حَقُّهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ فَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ يَرُدُّ عَتَاقَةَ الْعَبْدِ إِذَا ثَبَتَ الْمَالُ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ . قَالَ وَكَذَلِكَ أَيْضًا الرَّجُلُ يَنْكِحُ الأَمَةَ فَتَكُونُ امْرَأَتَهُ فَيَأْتِي سَيِّدُ الأَمَةِ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي تَزَوَّجَهَا فَيَقُولُ ابْتَعْتَ مِنِّي جَارِيَتِي فُلاَنَةَ أَنْتَ وَفُلاَنٌ بِكَذَا وَكَذَا دِينَارًا . فَيُنْكِرُ ذَلِكَ زَوْجُ الأَمَةِ فَيَأْتِي سَيِّدُ الأَمَةِ بِرَجُلٍ وَامْرَأَتَيْنِ فَيَشْهَدُونَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ فَيَثْبُتُ بَيْعُهُ وَيَحِقُّ حَقُّهُ وَتَحْرُمُ الأَمَةُ عَلَى زَوْجِهَا وَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِرَاقًا بَيْنَهُمَا وَشَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ لاَ تَجُوزُ فِي الطَّلاَقِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِنْ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا الرَّجُلُ يَفْتَرِي عَلَى الرَّجُلِ الْحُرِّ فَيَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدُّ فَيَأْتِي رَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ فَيَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ الَّذِي افْتُرِيَ عَلَيْهِ عَبْدٌ مَمْلُوكٌ فَيَضَعُ ذَلِكَ الْحَدَّ عَنِ الْمُفْتَرِي بَعْدَ أَنْ وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِ وَشَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ لاَ تَجُوزُ فِي الْفِرْيَةِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِمَّا يُشْبِهُ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا مِمَّا يَفْتَرِقُ فِيهِ الْقَضَاءُ وَمَا مَضَى مِنَ السُّنَّةِ أَنَّ الْمَرْأَتَيْنِ يَشْهَدَانِ عَلَى اسْتِهْلاَلِ الصَّبِيِّ فَيَجِبُ بِذَلِكَ مِيرَاثُهُ حَتَّى يَرِثَ وَيَكُونُ مَالُهُ لِمَنْ يَرِثُهُ إِنْ مَاتَ الصَّبِيُّ وَلَيْسَ مَعَ الْمَرْأَتَيْنِ اللَّتَيْنِ شَهِدَتَا رَجُلٌ وَلاَ يَمِينٌ وَقَدْ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِي الأَمْوَالِ الْعِظَامِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ وَالرِّبَاعِ وَالْحَوَائِطِ وَالرَّقِيقِ وَمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ وَلَوْ شَهِدَتِ امْرَأَتَانِ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ وَاحِدٍ أَوْ أَقَلَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ لَمْ تَقْطَعْ شَهَادَتُهُمَا شَيْئًا وَلَمْ تَجُزْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَعَهُمَا شَاهِدٌ أَوْ يَمِينٌ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ لاَ تَكُونُ الْيَمِينُ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ الْوَاحِدِ . وَيَحْتَجُّ بِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَقَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ {وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّنْ تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ} يَقُولُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَأْتِ بِرَجُلٍ وَامْرَأَتَيْنِ فَلاَ شَىْءَ لَهُ وَلاَ يُحَلَّفُ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَمِنَ الْحُجَّةِ عَلَى مَنْ قَالَ ذَلِكَ الْقَوْلَ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَهُ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً ادَّعَى عَلَى رَجُلٍ مَالاً أَلَيْسَ يَحْلِفُ الْمَطْلُوبُ مَا ذَلِكَ الْحَقُّ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ بَطَلَ ذَلِكَ عَنْهُ وَإِنْ نَكَلَ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ حُلِّفَ صَاحِبُ الْحَقِّ إِنَّ حَقَّهُ لَحَقٌّ . وَثَبَتَ حَقُّهُ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ فَهَذَا مَا لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَ أَحَدٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلاَ بِبَلَدٍ مِنَ الْبُلْدَانِ فَبِأَىِّ شَىْءٍ أَخَذَ هَذَا أَوْ فِي أَىِّ مَوْضِعٍ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَجَدَهُ فَإِنْ أَقَرَّ بِهَذَا فَلْيُقْرِرْ بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَأَنَّهُ لَيَكْفِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا مَضَى مِنَ السُّنَّةِ وَلَكِنِ الْمَرْءُ قَدْ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يَعْرِفَ وَجْهَ الصَّوَابِ وَمَوْقِعَ الْحُجَّةِ فَفِي هَذَا بَيَانُ مَا أَشْكَلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 7

Yahya said, "Malik said about Jamil ibn Abd ar-Rahman al-Muadhdin that he was present with Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz when he was judging between people. If a man came to him with a claim against a man, he examined whether or not there were frequent transactions and dealings between them. If there were, the defendant could make an oath. If there was nothing of that nature he did not accept an oath from him."
Malik summed up, "What is done in our community is that if some one makes a claim against a man, it is examined. If there are frequent transactions and dealings between them, the defendant is made to take an oath. If he takes an oath, the claim against him is dropped. If the defendant refuses to take an oath, and returns the oath to the claimant, the one claiming his right takes an oath and takes his due."

قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْمُؤَذِّنِ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَحْضُرُ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ وَهُوَ يَقْضِي بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فَإِذَا جَاءَهُ الرَّجُلُ يَدَّعِي عَلَى الرَّجُلِ حَقًّا نَظَرَ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمَا مُخَالَطَةٌ أَوْ مُلاَبَسَةٌ أَحْلَفَ الَّذِي ادُّعِيَ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ شَىْءٌ مِنْ ذَلِكَ لَمْ يُحَلِّفْهُ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ مَنِ ادَّعَى عَلَى رَجُلٍ بِدَعْوَى نُظِرَ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمَا مُخَالَطَةٌ أَوْ مُلاَبَسَةٌ أُحْلِفَ الْمُدَّعَى عَلَيْهِ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ بَطَلَ ذَلِكَ الْحَقُّ عَنْهُ وَإِنْ أَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ وَرَدَّ الْيَمِينَ عَلَى الْمُدَّعِي فَحَلَفَ طَالِبُ الْحَقِّ أَخَذَ حَقَّهُ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 8

Yahya said, "Malik said from Hisham ibn Urwa that Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr gave judgment based on the testimony of children concerning the injuries between them."
Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things in our community is that the testimony of children is permitted concerning injuries between them. It is not accepted about anything else. It is only permitted between them if they testify before they leave the scene of the incident and have been deceived or instructed. If they leave the scene, they have no testimony unless they call just witnesses to witness their testimony before they leave."

قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، كَانَ يَقْضِي بِشَهَادَةِ الصِّبْيَانِ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمْ مِنَ الْجِرَاحِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ شَهَادَةَ الصِّبْيَانِ تَجُوزُ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمْ مِنَ الْجِرَاحِ وَلاَ تَجُوزُ عَلَى غَيْرِهِمْ وَإِنَّمَا تَجُوزُ شَهَادَتُهُمْ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمْ مِنَ الْجِرَاحِ وَحْدَهَا لاَ تَجُوزُ فِي غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَفَرَّقُوا أَوْ يُخَبَّبُوا أَوْ يُعَلَّمُوا فَإِنِ افْتَرَقُوا فَلاَ شَهَادَةَ لَهُمْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونُوا قَدْ أَشْهَدُوا الْعُدُولَ عَلَى شَهَادَتِهِمْ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَفْتَرِقُوا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 9

Yahya said, Malik related to us from Hisham ibn Hisham ibn Utba ibn Abi Waqqas from Abdullah ibn Nistas from Jabir ibn Abdullah al- Ansari that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If someone swears a false oath near this mimbar of mine, he will take his seat in the fire.' "

قَالَ يَحْيَى حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ هَاشِمِ بْنِ هَاشِمِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ نِسْطَاسٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى مِنْبَرِي آثِمًا تَبَوَّأَ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 10

Malik related to me from al-Ala ibn Abd ar-Rahman from Mabad ibn Kab as-Salami from his brother Abdullah ibn Kab ibn Malik al-Ansari from Abu Umama that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever cuts off the right of a muslim man by his oath, Allah forbids him the Garden and obliges the Fire for him." They said, "Even if it is something insignificant, Messenger of Allah?" He said, "Even if it is a tooth-stick, even if it is a tooth- stick," repeating it three times.

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ الْعَلاَءِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ مَعْبَدِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ السَّلَمِيِّ، عَنْ أَخِيهِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ كَعْبِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " مَنِ اقْتَطَعَ حَقَّ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ بِيَمِينِهِ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَأَوْجَبَ لَهُ النَّارَ " . قَالُوا وَإِنْ كَانَ شَيْئًا يَسِيرًا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ " وَإِنْ كَانَ قَضِيبًا مِنْ أَرَاكٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَضِيبًا مِنْ أَرَاكٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَضِيبًا مِنْ أَرَاكٍ " . قَالَهَا ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 11

Yahya said that Malik had said from Da'ud ibn al-Husayn that he heard Abu Ghatafan ibn Tarif al-Muriyi say, "Zayd ibn Thabit al-Ansari and Ibn Muti had a dispute about a house which they shared. They went to Marwan ibn al-Hakam who was the Amir of Madina. Marwan decided that Zayd ibn Thabit must take an oath on the mimbar. Zayd ibn Thabit said, 'I swear to it where I am.' Marwan said, 'No, by Allah! only in the place of sorting out claims (i.e. the mimbar).' Zayd ibn Thabit began to take an oath that his right was true, and he refused to take an oath near the mimbar. Marwan ibn al-Hakam began to wonder at that."
Malik said, "I do not think that anyone should be made to take an oath near the mimbar for less than a fourth of a dinar, and that is three dirhams."

قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ الْحُصَيْنِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا غَطَفَانَ بْنَ طَرِيفٍ الْمُرِّيَّ، يَقُولُ اخْتَصَمَ زَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ الأَنْصَارِيُّ وَابْنُ مُطِيعٍ فِي دَارٍ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمَا إِلَى مَرْوَانَ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ وَهُوَ أَمِيرٌ عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَقَضَى مَرْوَانُ عَلَى زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ بِالْيَمِينِ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ . فَقَالَ زَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ أَحْلِفُ لَهُ مَكَانِي . قَالَ فَقَالَ مَرْوَانُ لاَ وَاللَّهِ إِلاَّ عِنْدَ مَقَاطِعِ الْحُقُوقِ . قَالَ فَجَعَلَ زَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ يَحْلِفُ أَنَّ حَقَّهُ لَحَقٌّ . وَيَأْبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ - قَالَ - فَجَعَلَ مَرْوَانُ بْنُ الْحَكَمِ يَعْجَبُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ لاَ أَرَى أَنْ يُحَلَّفَ أَحَدٌ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ عَلَى أَقَلَّ مِنْ رُبُعِ دِينَارٍ وَذَلِكَ ثَلاَثَةُ دَرَاهِمَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 12

Yahya said, "Malik related to us from Ibn Shihab from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The pledge given as security is not forfeited.' "
Malik said, "The explanation of that according to what we think - and Allah knows best - is that a man gives a pledge to somebody in security for something. The pledge is superior to that for which he pawned it. The pledger says to the pawn-broker, 'I will bring you your due, after such-and-such a time. If not, the pledge is yours for what it was pawned for.' "
Malik said, "This transaction is not good and it is not halal. This is what was forbidden. If the owner brings what he pledged it for after the period, it is his. I think that the time condition is void."

قَالَ يَحْيَى حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " لاَ يَغْلَقُ الرَّهْنُ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 13

Yahya said, "I heard Malik say that if a man pledges his garden for a stated period and the fruits of that garden are ready before the end of that period, the fruits are not included in the pledge with the real estate, unless it is stipulated by the pledger in his pledge. However, if a man receives a slave-girl as a pledge and she is pregnant or she becomes pregnant after his taking her as a pledge, her child is included with her.
"A distinction is made between the fruit and the child of the slave-girl. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If someone sells a palm which has been pollinated, the fruit belongs to the seller unless the buyer stipulates its inclusion.' The undisputed way of doing things in our community is that if a man sells a slave-girl or an animal with a foetus in its womb, the foetus belongs to the buyer, whether or not the buyer stipulates it. The palm is not like the animal. Fruit is not like the foetus in its mother's womb. Part of what clarifies that is also that it is the usage of people to have a man pawn the fruit of the palm apart from the palm. No one pawns the foetus in its mother's womb whether of slaves or animals."

قَالَ يَحْيَى حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " لاَ يَغْلَقُ الرَّهْنُ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 13

Yahya said that he had heard Malik say, "The undisputed way of doing things in our community concerning pledges is that in cases where land or a house or an animal are known to have been destroyed whilst in the possession of the broker of the pledge, and the circumstances of the loss are known, the loss is against the pledger. There is no deduction made from what is due to the broker at all. Any pledge which perishes in the possession of the broker and the circumstances of its loss are only known by his word, the loss is against the broker and he is liable for its value. He is asked to describe whatever was destroyed and then he is made to take an oath about that description and what he loaned on security for it. "Then people of discernment evaluate the description. If the pledge was worth more than what the broker loaned, the pledger takes the extra. If the assessed value of the pledge is less than what he was loaned, the pledger is made to take an oath as to what the broker loaned and he does not have to pay the extra which the broker loaned above the assessed value of the pledge. If the pledger refuses to take an oath, he has to give the broker the extra above the assessed value of the pledge. If the broker says that he doesn't know the value of the pledge, the pledger is made to take an oath on the description of the pledge and that is his if he brings a matter which is not disapproved of."
Malik said, "All this applies when the broker takes the pledge and does not put it in the hands of another."

قَالَ يَحْيَى حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " لاَ يَغْلَقُ الرَّهْنُ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 13

Yahya said that he heard Malik speak about two men who had a pledge between them. One of them undertook to sell his pledge, and the other one had asked him to wait a year for his due. He said, "If it is possible to divide the pledge, and the due of the one who asked him to wait will not be decreased, half the pledge which is between them is sold for him and he is given his due. If it is feared that his right will be decreased, all the pledge is sold, and the one who undertook to sell his pledge is given his due from that. If the one who asked him to wait for his due is pleased in himself, half of the price is paid to the pledger. If not, the pledgee is made to take an oath that he only asked him to wait so that he could transfer my pledge to me in its form.' Then he is given his due immediately."
Yahya said that he heard Malik say about a slave whose master had pledged him and the slave had property of his own, "The property of the slave is not part of the pledge unless the broker stipulates that."

قَالَ يَحْيَى حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " لاَ يَغْلَقُ الرَّهْنُ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 13

Yahya said that he heard Malik speak about someone who pledged goods as security for a loan, and they perished with the broker. The one who took out the loan confirmed its specification. They agreed on the amount of the loan, but challenged each other about the value of the pledge, the pledger saying that it had been worth twenty dinars, whilst the broker said that it had been worth only ten, and that the amount loaned on security was twenty dinars. Malik said, "It is said to the one in whose hand the pledge is, 'describe it.' If he describes it he is made to take an oath on it and then the people of experience evaluate that description. If the value is more than what was loaned on security for it, it is said to the broker, 'Return the rest of his due to the pledger.' If the value is less than what was loaned on security for it, the broker takes the rest of his due from the pledger. If the value is the exact amount of the loan, the pledge is compensated for by the loan."
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about two men who have a dispute about an amount of money loaned on the security of a pledge - the pledger claiming that he pledged it for ten dinars and the broker insisting that he took the pledge as security for twenty dinars, and the pledge is clearly in the possession of the broker - is that the broker is made to take an oath when the value of the pledge is fully known. If the value of the pledge is exactly what he swore that he had loaned on security for it, the broker takes the pledge as his right. He is more entitled to take precedence with an oath since he has possession of the pledge. If the owner of the pledge wants to give him the amount which he swore that he was owed, he can take the pledge back. If the pledge is worth less than the twenty dinars he loaned, then it is said to the pledger, 'Either you give him what he has sworn to and take your pledge back, or you swear to what you said you pledged it for.' If the pledger takes the oath, then what the broker has increased over the value of the pledge will become invalid. If the pledger does not take an oath, he must pay what the broker swore to."
Malik said, "If a pledge given on security for a loan perishes, and both parties deny each other's rights, with the broker who is owed the loan saying that he gave twenty dinars, and the pledger who owes the loan saying that he was given only ten, and with the broker who is owed the loan saying the pledge was worth ten dinars, and the broker who owes the loan saying it was worth twenty, then the broker who is owed the loan is asked to describe the pledge. If he describes it, he must take an oath on its description. Then people with experience of it evaluate that description. If the value of the pledge is estimated to be more than what the broker claims it was, he takes an oath as to what he claimed, and the pledger is given what is over from the value of the pledge. If its value is less than what the broker claims of it, he is made to take an oath as to what he claims is his. Then he demands settlement according to the actual value of the pledge. The one who owes the loan is then made to take an oath on the extra amount which remains owing against him to the claimant after the price of the pledge is reached. That is because the broker becomes a claimant against the pledger. If he takes an oath, the rest of what the broker swore to of what he claimed above the value of the pledge is invalidated. If he draws back, he is bound to pay what remains due to the broker after the value of the pledge."

قَالَ يَحْيَى حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " لاَ يَغْلَقُ الرَّهْنُ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 13

Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about a man who rents an animal for a journey to a specified place and then he goes beyond that place and further, is that the owner of the animal has a choice. If he wants to take extra rent for his animal to cover the distance overstepped, he is given that on top of the first rent and the animal is returned. If the owner of the animal likes to sell the animal from the place where he over-steps, he has the price of the animal on top of the rent. If, however, the hirer rented the animal to go and return and then he overstepped when he reached the city to which he rented him, the owner of the animal only has half the first rent. That is because half of the rent is going, and half of it is returning. If he oversteps with the animal, only half of the first rent is obliged for him. Had the animal died when he reached the city to which it was rented, the hirer would not be liable and the renter would only have half the rent."
Malik said, "That is what is done with people who overstep and dispute about what they took the animal for."
Malik said, "It is also like that with some one who takes qirad-money from his companion. The owner of the property says to him, 'Do not buy such-and-such animals or such- and-such goods.' He names them and forbids them and disapproves of his money being invested in them. The one who takes the money then buys what he was forbidden. By that, he intends to be liable for the money and take the profit of his companion. When he does that, the owner of the money has an option. If he wants to enter with him in the goods according to the original stipulations between them about the profit, he does so. If he likes, he has his capital guaranteed against the one who took the capital and over stepped the mark."
Malik said, "It is also like that with a man with whom another man invests some goods. The owner of the property orders him to buy certain goods for him which he names. He differs, and buys with the goods something other than what he was ordered to buy. He exceeded his orders. The owner of the goods has an option. If he wants to take what was bought with his property, he takes it. If he wants the partner to be liable for his capital he has that."

قَالَ يَحْيَى حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " لاَ يَغْلَقُ الرَّهْنُ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 13

Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan gave a judgment that the rapist had to pay the raped woman her bride- price.
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about the man who rapes a woman, virgin or non-virgin, if she is free, is that he must pay the bride-price of the like of her. If she is a slave, he must pay what he has diminished of her worth. The hadd-punishment in such cases is applied to the rapist, and there is no punishment applied to the raped woman. If the rapist is a slave, that is against his master unless he wishes to surrender him."

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ الْمَلِكِ بْنَ مَرْوَانَ، قَضَى فِي امْرَأَةٍ أُصِيبَتْ مُسْتَكْرَهَةً بِصَدَاقِهَا عَلَى مَنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهَا . قَالَ يَحْيَى سَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الرَّجُلِ يَغْتَصِبُ الْمَرْأَةَ بِكْرًا كَانَتْ أَوْ ثَيِّبًا إِنَّهَا إِنْ كَانَتْ حُرَّةً فَعَلَيْهِ صَدَاقُ مِثْلِهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أَمَةً فَعَلَيْهِ مَا نَقَصَ مِنْ ثَمَنِهَا وَالْعُقُوبَةُ فِي ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْمُغْتَصِبِ وَلاَ عُقُوبَةَ عَلَى الْمُغْتَصَبَةِ فِي ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمُغْتَصِبُ عَبْدًا فَذَلِكَ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءَ أَنْ يُسَلِّمَهُ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 14

Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about someone who consumed an animal without the permission of its owner, is that he must pay its price on the day he consumed it. He is not obliged to replace it with a similar animal nor does he compensate the owner with any kind of animal. He must pay its price on the day it was consumed, and giving the value is more equitable in compensation for animals and goods."
Yahya said that he heard Malik say about someone who consumes some food without the permission of its owner, "He returns to the owner a like weight of the same kind of food. Food is in the position of gold and silver. Gold and silver are returned with gold and silver. The animal is not in the position of gold in that. What distinguishes between them is the sunna and the behaviour which is in force.
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "If a man is entrusted with some wealth and then trades with it for himself and makes a profit, the profit is his because he is responsible for the property until he returns it to its owner. "

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ الْمَلِكِ بْنَ مَرْوَانَ، قَضَى فِي امْرَأَةٍ أُصِيبَتْ مُسْتَكْرَهَةً بِصَدَاقِهَا عَلَى مَنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهَا . قَالَ يَحْيَى سَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الرَّجُلِ يَغْتَصِبُ الْمَرْأَةَ بِكْرًا كَانَتْ أَوْ ثَيِّبًا إِنَّهَا إِنْ كَانَتْ حُرَّةً فَعَلَيْهِ صَدَاقُ مِثْلِهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أَمَةً فَعَلَيْهِ مَا نَقَصَ مِنْ ثَمَنِهَا وَالْعُقُوبَةُ فِي ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْمُغْتَصِبِ وَلاَ عُقُوبَةَ عَلَى الْمُغْتَصَبَةِ فِي ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمُغْتَصِبُ عَبْدًا فَذَلِكَ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءَ أَنْ يُسَلِّمَهُ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 14

Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone changes his deen - strike his neck!"
The meaning of the statement of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in our opinion and Allah knows best, is that "if someone changes his deen, strike his neck!" refers to those who leave Islam for other than it - like the heretics and their like, about whom it is known. They are killed without being called to tawba because their tawba is not recognised. They were hiding their kufr and publishing their Islam, so I do not think that one calls such people to tawba, and one does not accept their word. As for the one who goes out of Islam to something else and divulges it, one calls him to tawba. If he does not turn in tawba, he is killed. If there are people in that situation, I think that one should call them to Islam and call them to tawba. If they turn in tawba, that is accepted from them. If they do not turn in tawba, they are killed. That does not refer as we see it, and Allah knows best, to those who come out of Judaism to Christianity or from Christianity to Judaism, nor to someone who changes his deen from the various forms of deen except for Islam. Whoever comes out of Islam to other than it and divulges that, that is the one who is referred to, and Allah knows best!

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " مَنْ غَيَّرَ دِينَهُ فَاضْرِبُوا عُنُقَهُ " . وَمَعْنَى قَوْلِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيمَا نُرَى - وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ - " مَنْ غَيَّرَ دِينَهُ فَاضْرِبُوا عُنُقَهُ " . أَنَّهُ مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنَ الإِسْلاَمِ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ مِثْلُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ وَأَشْبَاهِهِمْ فَإِنَّ أُولَئِكَ إِذَا ظُهِرَ عَلَيْهِمْ قُتِلُوا وَلَمْ يُسْتَتَابُوا لأَنَّهُ لاَ تُعْرَفُ تَوْبَتُهُمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسِرُّونَ الْكُفْرَ وَيُعْلِنُونَ الإِسْلاَمَ فَلاَ أَرَى أَنْ يُسْتَتَابَ هَؤُلاَءِ وَلاَ يُقْبَلُ مِنْهُمْ قَوْلُهُمْ وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنَ الإِسْلاَمِ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ وَأَظْهَرَ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّهُ يُسْتَتَابُ فَإِنْ تَابَ وَإِلاَّ قُتِلَ وَذَلِكَ لَوْ أَنَّ قَوْمًا كَانُوا عَلَى ذَلِكَ رَأَيْتُ أَنْ يُدْعَوْا إِلَى الإِسْلاَمِ وَيُسْتَتَابُوا فَإِنْ تَابُوا قُبِلَ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُمْ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَتُوبُوا قُتِلُوا وَلَمْ يُعْنَ بِذَلِكَ فِيمَا نُرَى وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنَ الْيَهُودِيَّةِ إِلَى النَّصْرَانِيَّةِ وَلاَ مِنَ النَّصْرَانِيَّةِ إِلَى الْيَهُودِيَّةِ وَلاَ مَنْ يُغَيِّرُ دِينَهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الأَدْيَانِ كُلِّهَا إِلاَّ الإِسْلاَمَ فَمَنْ خَرَجَ مِنَ الإِسْلاَمِ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ وَأَظْهَرَ ذَلِكَ فَذَلِكَ الَّذِي عُنِيَ بِهِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 15

Malik related to me from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abd al-Qari that his father said, "A man came to Umar ibn al- Khattab from Abu Musa al-Ashari. Umar asked after various people, and he informed him. Then Umar inquired, 'Do you have any recent news?' He said, 'Yes. A man has become a kafir after his Islam.' Umar asked, 'What have you done with him?' He said, 'We let him approach and struck off his head.' Umar said, 'Didn't you imprison him for three days and feed him a loaf of bread every day and call on him to tawba that he might turn in tawba and return to the command of Allah?' Then Umar said, 'O Allah! I was not present and I did not order it and I am not pleased since it has come to me!' "

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدٍ الْقَارِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَدِمَ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَجُلٌ مِنْ قِبَلِ أَبِي مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيِّ فَسَأَلَهُ عَنِ النَّاسِ، فَأَخْبَرَهُ ثُمَّ، قَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ هَلْ كَانَ فِيكُمْ مِنْ مُغَرِّبَةِ خَبَرٍ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ رَجُلٌ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ إِسْلاَمِهِ . قَالَ فَمَا فَعَلْتُمْ بِهِ قَالَ قَرَّبْنَاهُ فَضَرَبْنَا عُنُقَهُ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ أَفَلاَ حَبَسْتُمُوهُ ثَلاَثًا وَأَطْعَمْتُمُوهُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ رَغِيفًا وَاسْتَتَبْتُمُوهُ لَعَلَّهُ يَتُوبُ وَيُرَاجِعُ أَمْرَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ عُمَرُ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي لَمْ أَحْضُرْ وَلَمْ آمُرْ وَلَمْ أَرْضَ إِذْ بَلَغَنِي .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 16

Yahya related to me from Malik from Suhayl ibn Abi Salih as- Samman from his father from Abu Hurayra that Sad ibn Ubada said to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "What do you think if I find a man with my wife? Shall I grant him a respite until I bring four witnesses?" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, "Yes."

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ السَّمَّانِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَادَةَ، قَالَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ وَجَدْتُ مَعَ امْرَأَتِي رَجُلاً أَأُمْهِلُهُ حَتَّى آتِيَ بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " نَعَمْ " .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 17

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said from Said ibn al-Musayyab that a Syrian man called Ibn Khaybari found a man with his wife and killed him, or killed them both. Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan found it difficult to make a decision and he wrote to Abu Musa al-Ashari to ask Ali ibn Abi Talib for him about that. So Abu Musa asked Ali ibn Abi Talib and AIi said to him, "Is this thing in my land? I adjure you, you must tell me." Abu Musa explained to him how Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan had written him to ask Ali about it. Ali said, "I am Abu Hasan. If he does not bring four witnesses, then let him be completely handed over," (to the relatives of the murdered man).

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ - يُقَالُ لَهُ ابْنُ خَيْبَرِيٍّ - وَجَدَ مَعَ امْرَأَتِهِ رَجُلاً فَقَتَلَهُ أَوْ قَتَلَهُمَا مَعًا فَأَشْكَلَ عَلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ الْقَضَاءُ فِيهِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَى أَبِي مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيِّ يَسْأَلُ لَهُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَسَأَلَ أَبُو مُوسَى عَنْ ذَلِكَ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِيٌّ إِنَّ هَذَا الشَّىْءَ مَا هُوَ بِأَرْضِي عَزَمْتُ عَلَيْكَ لَتُخْبِرَنِّي . فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو مُوسَى كَتَبَ إِلَىَّ مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ أَنْ أَسْأَلَكَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ . فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ أَنَا أَبُو حَسَنٍ إِنْ لَمْ يَأْتِ بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ فَلْيُعْطَ بِرُمَّتِهِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 18

Yahya said that Malik related from Ibn Shihab that Sunayn Abi Jamila, a man from the Banu Sulaym, found an abandoned child in the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab. Sunayn took him to Umar ibn al-Khattab. He asked, "What has induced you to take this person?" He answered, "I found him lost, so I took him.'' Umar's advisor said to him,' 'Amir al-Muminin! He is a man who does good." Umar inquired of him, "Is it so?" He replied, "Yes." Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "Go, he is free, and you have his wala' inheritance, and we will provide for him."
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about an abandoned child is that he is free, and his wala' inheritance belongs to the muslims, and they inherit from him and pay his blood money."

قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سُنَيْنٍ أَبِي جَمِيلَةَ، رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي سُلَيْمٍ أَنَّهُ وَجَدَ مَنْبُوذًا فِي زَمَانِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ قَالَ فَجِئْتُ بِهِ إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى أَخْذِ هَذِهِ النَّسَمَةِ فَقَالَ وَجَدْتُهَا ضَائِعَةً فَأَخَذْتُهَا . فَقَالَ لَهُ عَرِيفُهُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّهُ رَجُلٌ صَالِحٌ . فَقَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ أَكَذَلِكَ قَالَ نَعَمْ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ اذْهَبْ فَهُوَ حُرٌّ وَلَكَ وَلاَؤُهُ وَعَلَيْنَا نَفَقَتُهُ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 19

Yahya said from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ''Utba ibn Abi Waqqas disclosed to his brother, Sad ibn Abi Waqqas, that he was the father of the son of the slave-girl of Zama, and made him promise to look after him (after his death). In the year of the conquest, Sad took him and said, 'He is the son of my brother. He covenanted with me about him.' Abd ibn Zama stood up and said, 'He is my brother and the son of my father's slave-girl. He was born on his bed.' They went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Sad said, 'Messenger of Allah! He is the son of my brother, he made a covenant with me about him.' Abd ibn Zama said, 'He is my brother and the son of my father's slave-girl and was born on my father's bed.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'He is yours, Abd ibn Zama.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'A child belongs to the household (where he was born) and the adulterer is stoned.' Then he told Sawda bint Zama, 'Veil yourself from him,' since he saw in him a resemblance to Utba ibn Abi Waqqas." A'isha added, "He did not see her until he met Allah, the Mighty, the Majestic!"

قَالَ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ كَانَ عُتْبَةُ بْنُ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ عَهِدَ إِلَى أَخِيهِ سَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ أَنَّ ابْنَ وَلِيدَةِ زَمْعَةَ مِنِّي فَاقْبِضْهُ إِلَيْكَ . قَالَتْ فَلَمَّا كَانَ عَامُ الْفَتْحِ أَخَذَهُ سَعْدٌ وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَخِي قَدْ كَانَ عَهِدَ إِلَىَّ فِيهِ . فَقَامَ إِلَيْهِ عَبْدُ بْنُ زَمْعَةَ فَقَالَ أَخِي وَابْنُ وَلِيدَةِ أَبِي وُلِدَ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ . فَتَسَاوَقَا إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ سَعْدٌ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ابْنُ أَخِي قَدْ كَانَ عَهِدَ إِلَىَّ فِيهِ . وَقَالَ عَبْدُ بْنُ زَمْعَةَ أَخِي وَابْنُ وَلِيدَةِ أَبِي وُلِدَ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ . فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " هُوَ لَكَ يَا عَبْدُ بْنَ زَمْعَةَ " . ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " الْوَلَدُ لِلْفِرَاشِ وَلِلْعَاهِرِ الْحَجَرُ " . ثُمَّ قَالَ لِسَوْدَةَ بِنْتِ زَمْعَةَ " احْتَجِبِي مِنْهُ " . لِمَا رَأَى مِنْ شَبَهِهِ بِعُتْبَةَ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ قَالَتْ فَمَا رَآهَا حَتَّى لَقِيَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 20

Malik related to me from Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn al-Hadi from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Harith at-Taymi from Sulayman ibn Yasar from Abdullah ibn Abi Umayya that a woman's husband died, and she did the idda of four months and ten days. Then she married when she was free to marry. She stayed with her husband for four and a half months, then gave birth to a fully developed child. Her husband went to Umar ibn al-Khattab and mentioned that to him, so Umar called some of the old women of the Jahiliyya and asked them about that. One of the women said, "I will tell you what happened with this woman. When her husband died, she was pregnant by him, but then the blood flowed from her because of his death and the child became dry in her womb. When her new husband had intercourse with her and the water reached the child, the child moved in the womb and grew." Umar ibn al-Khattab believed her and separated them (until she had completed her idda). Umar said, "Only good has reached me about you two," and he connected the child to the first husband.

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْهَادِي، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ التَّيْمِيِّ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي أُمَيَّةَ، أَنَّ امْرَأَةً، هَلَكَ عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا فَاعْتَدَّتْ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا ثُمَّ تَزَوَّجَتْ حِينَ حَلَّتْ فَمَكَثَتْ عِنْدَ زَوْجِهَا أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَنِصْفَ شَهْرٍ ثُمَّ وَلَدَتْ وَلَدًا تَامًّا فَجَاءَ زَوْجُهَا إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَدَعَا عُمَرُ نِسْوَةً مِنْ نِسَاءِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ قُدَمَاءَ فَسَأَلَهُنَّ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَتِ امْرَأَةٌ مِنْهُنَّ أَنَا أُخْبِرُكَ عَنْ هَذِهِ الْمَرْأَةِ هَلَكَ عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا حِينَ حَمَلَتْ مِنْهُ فَأُهْرِيقَتْ عَلَيْهِ الدِّمَاءُ فَحَشَّ وَلَدُهَا فِي بَطْنِهَا فَلَمَّا أَصَابَهَا زَوْجُهَا الَّذِي نَكَحَهَا وَأَصَابَ الْوَلَدَ الْمَاءُ تَحَرَّكَ الْوَلَدُ فِي بَطْنِهَا وَكَبِرَ . فَصَدَّقَهَا عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ وَفَرَّقَ بَيْنَهُمَا وَقَالَ عُمَرُ أَمَا إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَبْلُغْنِي عَنْكُمَا إِلاَّ خَيْرٌ وَأَلْحَقَ الْوَلَدَ بِالأَوَّلِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements, Hadith 21