Jump to:
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard the same as that from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ibn Muayqib ad-Dawsi.
Malik said, "This is the way of doing things among us . "
Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things among us is that wheat is not sold for wheat, dates for dates, wheat for dates, dates for raisins, wheat for raisins, nor any kind of food sold for food at all, except from hand to hand. If there is any sort of delayed terms in the transaction, it is not good. It is haram. Condiments are not bartered except from hand to hand."
Malik said, "Food and condiments are not bartered when they are the same type, two of one kind for one of the other. A mudd of wheat is not sold for two mudds of wheat, nor a mudd of dates for two mudds of dates, nor a mudd of raisins for two mudds of raisins, nor is anything of that sort done with grains and condiments when they are of one kind, even if it is hand to hand.
"This is the same position as silver for silver and gold for gold. No increase is halal in the transaction, and only like for like, from hand to hand is halal."
Malik said, "If there is a clear difference in foodstuffs which are measured and weighed, there is no harm in taking two of one kind for one of another, hand to hand. There is no harm in taking a sa of dates for two sa of wheat, and a sa of dates for two sa of raisins, and a sa of wheat for two sa of ghee. If the two sorts in the transaction are different, there is no harm in two for one or more than that from hand to hand. If delayed terms enter into the sale, it is not halal ."
Malik said, "It is not halal to trade a heap of wheat for a heap of wheat. There is no harm in a heap of wheat for a heap of dates, from hand to hand. That is because there is no harm in buying wheat with dates without precise measurement."
Malik said, "With kinds of foods and condiments that differ from each other, and the difference is clear, there is no harm in bartering one kind for another, without precise measurement from hand to hand. If delayed terms enter into the sale, there is no good in it. Bartering such things without precise measurement is like buying it with gold and silver without measuring precisely."
Malik said, "That is because you buy wheat with silver without measuring precisely, and dates with gold without measuring precisely, and it is halal. There is no harm in it."
Malik said, "It is not good for someone to make a heap of food, knowing its measure and then to sell it as if it had not been measured precisely, concealing its measure from the buyer. If the buyer wants to return that food to the seller, he can, because he concealed its measure and so it is an uncertain transaction. This is done with any kind of food or other goods whose measure and number the seller knows, and which he then sells without measurement and the buyer does not know that. If the buyer wants to return that to the seller, he can return t. The people of knowledge still forbid such a transaction."
Malik said, "There is no good in selling one round loaf of bread for two round loaves, nor large for small when some of them are bigger than others. When care is taken that they are like for like, there is no harm in the sale, even if they are not weighed."
Malik said, "It is not good to sell a mudd of butter and a mudd of milk for two mudds of butter. This is like what we described of selling dates when two sa of kabis and a sa of poor quality dates were sold for three sa of ajwa dates after the buyer had said to the seller, 'Two sa of kabis dates for three sa of ajwa dates is not good,' and then he did that to make the transaction possible. The owner of the milk puts the milk with his butter so that he can use the superiority of his butter over the butter of the other party to put his milk in with it."
Malik said, "Flour for wheat is like for like, and there is no harm in that. That is if he does not mix up anything with the flour and sell it for wheat, like for like. Had he put half a mudd of flour and half of wheat, and then sold that for a mudd of wheat, it would be like what we described, and it would not be good because he would want to use the superiority of his good wheat to put flour along with it. Such a transaction is not good."
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ مُعَيْقِيبٍ الدَّوْسِيِّ، مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهُوَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنْ لاَ تُبَاعَ الْحِنْطَةُ بِالْحِنْطَةِ وَلاَ التَّمْرُ بِالتَّمْرِ وَلاَ الْحِنْطَةُ بِالتَّمْرِ وَلاَ التَّمْرُ بِالزَّبِيبِ وَلاَ الْحِنْطَةُ بِالزَّبِيبِ وَلاَ شَىْءٌ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ كُلِّهِ إِلاَّ يَدًا بِيَدٍ فَإِنْ دَخَلَ شَيْئًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ الأَجَلُ لَمْ يَصْلُحْ وَكَانَ حَرَامًا وَلاَ شَىْءَ مِنَ الأُدْمِ كُلِّهَا إِلاَّ يَدًا بِيَدٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ يُبَاعُ شَىْءٌ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ وَالأُدْمِ إِذَا كَانَ مِنْ صِنْفٍ وَاحِدٍ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ فَلاَ يُبَاعُ مُدُّ حِنْطَةٍ بِمُدَّىْ حِنْطَةٍ وَلاَ مُدُّ تَمْرٍ بِمُدَّىْ تَمْرٍ وَلاَ مُدُّ زَبِيبٍ بِمُدَّىْ زَبِيبٍ وَلاَ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْحُبُوبِ وَالأُدْمِ كُلِّهَا إِذَا كَانَ مِنْ صِنْفٍ وَاحِدٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَرِقِ بِالْوَرِقِ وَالذَّهَبِ بِالذَّهَبِ لاَ يَحِلُّ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْفَضْلُ وَلاَ يَحِلُّ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ يَدًا بِيَدٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِذَا اخْتَلَفَ مَا يُكَالُ أَوْ يُوزَنُ مِمَّا يُؤْكَلُ أَوْ يُشْرَبُ فَبَانَ اخْتِلاَفُهُ فَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُؤْخَذَ مِنْهُ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَدًا بِيَدٍ وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُؤْخَذَ صَاعٌ مِنْ تَمْرٍ بِصَاعَيْنِ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ وَصَاعٌ مِنْ تَمْرٍ بِصَاعَيْنِ مِنْ زَبِيبٍ وَصَاعٌ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ بِصَاعَيْنِ مِنْ سَمْنٍ فَإِذَا كَانَ الصِّنْفَانِ مِنْ هَذَا مُخْتَلِفَيْنِ فَلاَ بَأْسَ بِاثْنَيْنِ مِنْهُ بِوَاحِدٍ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ فَإِنْ دَخَلَ ذَلِكَ الأَجَلُ فَلاَ يَحِلُّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ تَحِلُّ صُبْرَةُ الْحِنْطَةِ بِصُبْرَةِ الْحِنْطَةِ وَلاَ بَأْسَ بِصُبْرَةِ الْحِنْطَةِ بِصُبْرَةِ التَّمْرِ يَدًا بِيَدٍ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُشْتَرَى الْحِنْطَةُ بِالتَّمْرِ جِزَافًا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكُلُّ مَا اخْتَلَفَ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ وَالأُدْمِ فَبَانَ اخْتِلاَفُهُ فَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُشْتَرَى بَعْضُهُ بِبَعْضٍ جِزَافًا يَدًا بِيَدٍ فَإِنْ دَخَلَهُ الأَجَلُ فَلاَ خَيْرَ فِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا اشْتِرَاءُ ذَلِكَ جِزَافًا كَاشْتِرَاءِ بَعْضِ ذَلِكَ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ جِزَافًا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّكَ تَشْتَرِي الْحِنْطَةَ بِالْوَرِقِ جِزَافًا وَالتَّمْرَ بِالذَّهَبِ جِزَافًا فَهَذَا حَلاَلٌ لاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ صَبَّرَ صُبْرَةَ طَعَامٍ وَقَدْ عَلِمَ كَيْلَهَا ثُمَّ بَاعَهَا جِزَافًا وَكَتَمَ الْمُشْتَرِي كَيْلَهَا فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَصْلُحُ فَإِنْ أَحَبَّ الْمُشْتَرِي أَنْ يَرُدَّ ذَلِكَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى الْبَائِعِ رَدَّهُ بِمَا كَتَمَهُ كَيْلَهُ وَغَرَّهُ وَكَذَلِكَ كُلُّ مَا عَلِمَ الْبَائِعُ كَيْلَهُ وَعَدَدَهُ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ وَغَيْرِهِ ثُمَّ بَاعَهُ جِزَافًا وَلَمْ يَعْلَمِ الْمُشْتَرِي ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّ الْمُشْتَرِيَ إِنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَرُدَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْبَائِعِ رَدَّهُ وَلَمْ يَزَلْ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ خَيْرَ فِي الْخُبْزِ قُرْصٍ بِقُرْصَيْنِ وَلاَ عَظِيمٍ بِصَغِيرٍ إِذَا كَانَ بَعْضُ ذَلِكَ أَكْبَرَ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَأَمَّا إِذَا كَانَ يَتَحَرَّى أَنْ يَكُونَ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ فَلاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يُوزَنْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ لاَ يَصْلُحُ مُدُّ زُبْدٍ وَمُدُّ لَبَنٍ بِمُدَّىْ زُبْدٍ وَهُوَ مِثْلُ الَّذِي وَصَفْنَا مِنَ التَّمْرِ الَّذِي يُبَاعُ صَاعَيْنِ مِنْ كَبِيسٍ وَصَاعًا مِنْ حَشَفٍ بِثَلاَثَةِ أَصْوُعٍ مِنْ عَجْوَةٍ حِينَ قَالَ لِصَاحِبِهِ إِنَّ صَاعَيْنِ مِنْ كَبِيسٍ بِثَلاَثَةِ أَصْوُعٍ مِنَ الْعَجْوَةِ لاَ يَصْلُحُ ‏.‏ فَفَعَلَ ذَلِكَ لِيُجِيزَ بَيْعَهُ وَإِنَّمَا جَعَلَ صَاحِبُ اللَّبَنِ اللَّبَنَ مَعَ زُبْدِهِ لِيَأْخُذَ فَضْلَ زُبْدِهِ عَلَى زُبْدِ صَاحِبِهِ حِينَ أَدْخَلَ مَعَهُ اللَّبَنَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالدَّقِيقُ بِالْحِنْطَةِ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ لاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ وَذَلِكَ لأَنَّهُ أَخْلَصَ الدَّقِيقَ فَبَاعَهُ بِالْحِنْطَةِ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ وَلَوْ جَعَلَ نِصْفَ الْمُدِّ مِنْ دَقِيقٍ وَنِصْفَهُ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ فَبَاعَ ذَلِكَ بِمُدٍّ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ كَانَ ذَلِكَ مِثْلَ الَّذِي وَصَفْنَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ فَضْلَ حِنْطَتِهِ الْجَيِّدَةِ حَتَّى جَعَلَ مَعَهَا الدَّقِيقَ فَهَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ ‏.‏

Classification

No Data

References

• Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Business Transactions, Hadith 52