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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce

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120 ahādīth

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man said to Abdullah ibn Abbas, "I have divorced my wife by saying I divorce you a hundred times. What do you think my situation is?" Ibn Abbas said to him, "She was divorced from you by three pronouncements, and by the ninety-seven, you have mocked the ayat of Allah."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، قَالَ لِعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ إِنِّي طَلَّقْتُ امْرَأَتِي مِائَةَ تَطْلِيقَةٍ فَمَاذَا تَرَى عَلَىَّ فَقَالَ لَهُ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ طَلُقَتْ مِنْكَ لِثَلاَثٍ وَسَبْعٌ وَتِسْعُونَ اتَّخَذْتَ بِهَا آيَاتِ اللَّهِ هُزُوًا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 1

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man came to Abdullah ibn Masud and said, "I have divorced my wife by saying I divorce you eight times." Ibn Masud said to him, "What have people told you?" He replied, "I have been told that I have to part absolutely from her." Ibn Masud said, "They have spoken the truth. A person who divorces as Allah has commanded, Allah makes it clear for him, and a person who obscures himself in error, we make stay by his error. So do not confuse yourselves and pull us into your confusion. It is as they have said."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، جَاءَ إِلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ فَقَالَ إِنِّي طَلَّقْتُ امْرَأَتِي ثَمَانِيَ تَطْلِيقَاتٍ . فَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ فَمَاذَا قِيلَ لَكَ قَالَ قِيلَ لِي إِنَّهَا قَدْ بَانَتْ مِنِّي . فَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ صَدَقُوا مَنْ طَلَّقَ كَمَا أَمَرَهُ اللَّهُ فَقَدْ بَيَّنَ اللَّهُ لَهُ وَمَنْ لَبَسَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ لَبْسًا جَعَلْنَا لَبْسَهُ مُلْصَقًا بِهِ لاَ تَلْبِسُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِكُمْ وَنَتَحَمَّلَهُ عَنْكُمْ هُوَ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 2

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Abu Bakr ibn Hazm thatUmar ibn Abd al-Aziz had asked him what people said about the 'irrevocable' divorce, and Abu Bakr had replied that Aban ibn Uthman had clarified that it was declared only once. Umar ibn Abd al- Aziz said, "Even if divorce had to be declared a thousand times, the'irrevocable' would use them all up. A person who says, 'irrevocably' has cast the furthest limit."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ حَزْمٍ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، قَالَ لَهُ الْبَتَّةُ مَا يَقُولُ النَّاسُ فِيهَا قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ كَانَ أَبَانُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ يَجْعَلُهَا وَاحِدَةً . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ لَوْ كَانَ الطَّلاَقُ أَلْفًا مَا أَبْقَتِ الْبَتَّةُ مِنْهَا شَيْئًا مَنْ قَالَ الْبَتَّةَ فَقَدْ رَمَى الْغَايَةَ الْقُصْوَى .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 3

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Marwan ibn al-Hakam decided that if someone made three pronouncements of divorce, he had divorced his wife irrevocably.
Malik said, "That is what I like best of what I have heard on the subject."
29.2 Divorce by Euphemistic Statements

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ، كَانَ يَقْضِي فِي الَّذِي يُطَلِّقُ امْرَأَتَهُ الْبَتَّةَ أَنَّهَا ثَلاَثُ تَطْلِيقَاتٍ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا أَحَبُّ مَا سَمِعْتُ إِلَىَّ فِي ذَلِكَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 4

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Umar ibn al-Khattab had heard in a letter from Iraq that a man said to his wife, "Your rein is on your withers (i.e. you have free rein)." Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to his governor to order the man to come to him at Makka at the time of hajj. While Umar was doing tawaf around the House, a man met him and greeted him. Umar asked him who he was, and he replied that he was the man that he had ordered to be brought to him. Umar said to him, "I ask you by the Lord of this building, what did you mean by your statement, 'Your rein is on your withers.'?" The man replied, "Had you made me swear by other than this place, I would not have told you the truth. I intended separation by that." Umar ibn al- Khattab said, "It is what you intended."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّهُ كُتِبَ إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ مِنَ الْعِرَاقَ أَنَّ رَجُلاً قَالَ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ حَبْلُكِ عَلَى غَارِبِكِ فَكَتَبَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ إِلَى عَامِلِهِ أَنْ مُرْهُ يُوَافِينِي بِمَكَّةَ فِي الْمَوْسِمِ فَبَيْنَمَا عُمَرُ يَطُوفُ بِالْبَيْتِ إِذْ لَقِيَهُ الرَّجُلُ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ مَنْ أَنْتَ فَقَالَ أَنَا الَّذِي أَمَرْتَ أَنْ أُجْلَبَ عَلَيْكَ . فَقَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ أَسْأَلُكَ بِرَبِّ هَذِهِ الْبَنِيَّةِ مَا أَرَدْتَ بِقَوْلِكَ حَبْلُكِ عَلَى غَارِبِكِ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ لَوِ اسْتَحْلَفْتَنِي فِي غَيْرِ هَذَا الْمَكَانِ مَا صَدَقْتُكَ أَرَدْتُ بِذَلِكَ الْفِرَاقَ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ هُوَ مَا أَرَدْتَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 5

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Ali ibn Abi Talib used to say that if a man said to his wife, "You are haram for me," it counted as three pronouncements of divorce.
Malik said, "That is the best of what I have heard on the subject."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَقُولُ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ أَنْتِ عَلَىَّ حَرَامٌ إِنَّهَا ثَلاَثُ تَطْلِيقَاتٍ . قَالَ مَالِكُ وَذَلِكَ أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 6

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said that statements like "I cut myself off from you",or"You are abandoned", were considered as three pronouncements of divorce.
Malik said that any strong statements such as these or others were considered as three pronouncements of divorce for a woman whose marriage had been consummated. In the case of a woman whose marriage had not been consummated, the man was asked to make an oath on his deen, as to whether he had intended one or three pronouncements of divorce. If he had intended one pronouncement, he was asked to make an oath by Allah to confirm it, and he became a suitor among other suitors, because a woman whose marriage had been consummated, required three pronouncements of divorce to make her inaccessible for the husband, whilst only one pronouncement was needed to make a woman whose marriage had not been consummated inaccessible.
Malik added, "That is the best of what I have heard about the matter."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي الْخَلِيَّةِ وَالْبَرِيَّةِ إِنَّهَا ثَلاَثُ تَطْلِيقَاتٍ كُلُّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْهُمَا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 7

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad that a certain man had taken a slave-girl belonging to somebody else as a wife. He said to her people, "She is your concern," and people considered that to be one pronouncement of divorce.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، . أَنَّ رَجُلاً، كَانَتْ تَحْتَهُ وَلِيدَةٌ لِقَوْمٍ فَقَالَ لأَهْلِهَا شَأْنَكُمْ بِهَا . فَرَأَى النَّاسُ أَنَّهَا تَطْلِيقَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 8

Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard Ibn Shihab say that if a man said to his wife, "You are free of me, and I am free of you, " it counted as three pronouncements of divorce as if it were an 'irrevocable' divorce.
Malik said that if a man made any strong statement such as these to his wife, it counted as three pronouncements of divorce for a woman whose marriage had been consummated, or it was written as one of three for a woman whose marriage had not been consummated, whichever the man wished. If he said he intended only one divorce he swore to it and he became one of the suitors because, whereas a woman whose marriage had been consummated was made inaccessible by three pronouncements of divorce, the woman whose marriage had not been consummated was made inaccessible by only one pronouncement.
Malik said, "That is the best of what I have heard."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ، يَقُولُ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَقُولُ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ بَرِئْتِ مِنِّي وَبَرِئْتُ مِنْكِ إِنَّهَا ثَلاَثُ تَطْلِيقَاتٍ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْبَتَّةِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَقُولُ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ أَنْتِ خَلِيَّةٌ أَوْ بَرِيَّةٌ أَوْ بَائِنَةٌ إِنَّهَا ثَلاَثُ تَطْلِيقَاتٍ لِلْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي قَدْ دَخَلَ بِهَا وَيُدَيَّنُ فِي الَّتِي لَمْ يَدْخُلْ بِهَا أَوَاحِدَةً أَرَادَ أَمْ ثَلاَثًا فَإِنْ قَالَ وَاحِدَةً أُحْلِفَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَكَانَ خَاطِبًا مِنَ الْخُطَّابِ لأَنَّهُ لاَ يُخْلِي الْمَرْأَةَ الَّتِي قَدْ دَخَلَ بِهَا زَوْجُهَا وَلاَ يُبِينُهَا وَلاَ يُبْرِيهَا إِلاَّ ثَلاَثُ تَطْلِيقَاتٍ وَالَّتِي لَمْ يَدْخُلْ بِهَا تُخْلِيهَا وَتُبْرِيهَا وَتُبِينُهَا الْوَاحِدَةُ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 9

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man came to Abdullah ibn Umar, and said, "Abu Abd ar-Rahman! I placed the command of my wife in her hand, and she divorced herself, what do you think?" Abdullah ibn Umar said, "I think that it is as she said." The man said, "Don't do it, Abu Abd ar-Rahman!" Ibn Umar said, "You did it, it has nothing to do with me."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، جَاءَ إِلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ إِنِّي جَعَلْتُ أَمْرَ امْرَأَتِي فِي يَدِهَا فَطَلَّقَتْ نَفْسَهَا فَمَاذَا تَرَى فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ أُرَاهُ كَمَا قَالَتْ . فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ لاَ تَفْعَلْ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ . فَقَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ أَنَا أَفْعَلُ أَنْتَ فَعَلْتَهُ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 10

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "When a man gives a woman command over herself, then the result is as she decides unless he denies it and says that he only meant to give her one divorce and he swears to it - then he has access to her while she is in her idda."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، كَانَ يَقُولُ إِذَا مَلَّكَ الرَّجُلُ امْرَأَتَهُ أَمْرَهَا فَالْقَضَاءُ مَا قَضَتْ بِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يُنْكِرَ عَلَيْهَا وَيَقُولَ لَمْ أُرِدْ إِلاَّ وَاحِدَةً فَيَحْلِفُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَيَكُونُ أَمْلَكَ بِهَا مَا كَانَتْ فِي عِدَّتِهَا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 11

Yahya related to me from Malik from Said ibn Sulayman ibn Zayd ibn Thabit that Kharija ibn Zayd ibn Thabit told him that he was sitting with Zayd ibn Thabit when Muhammad ibn Abi Atiq came to him with his eyes brimming with tears. Zayd asked him what the matter was. He said, "I gave my wife command of herself, and she separated from me." Zayd said to him, "What made you do that?" He said, "The Decree." Zayd said, "Return to her if you wish for it is only one pronouncement, and you have access to her."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ خَارِجَةَ بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّهُ، كَانَ جَالِسًا عِنْدَ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ فَأَتَاهُ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَتِيقٍ وَعَيْنَاهُ تَدْمَعَانِ فَقَالَ لَهُ زَيْدٌ مَا شَأْنُكَ فَقَالَ مَلَّكْتُ امْرَأَتِي أَمْرَهَا فَفَارَقَتْنِي . فَقَالَ لَهُ زَيْدٌ مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ قَالَ الْقَدَرُ . فَقَالَ زَيْدٌ ارْتَجِعْهَا إِنْ شِئْتَ فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ وَاحِدَةٌ وَأَنْتَ أَمْلَكُ بِهَا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 12

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasim from his father that a man of Thaqif gave his wife command over herself, and she said, "You are divorced." He was silent. She said, "You are divorced." He said, "May a stone be in your mouth." She said, "You are divorced." He said, "May a stone be in your mouth." They argued and went to Marwan ibn al-Hakam. He took an oath that he had only given her control over one pronouncement, and then she returned to him.
Malik said that Abd ar-Rahman declared that this decision had amazed al-Qasim, who thought it the best that he had heard on the subject.
Malik added, "That is also the best of what I have heard on the subject."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، مِنْ ثَقِيفٍ مَلَّكَ امْرَأَتَهُ أَمْرَهَا فَقَالَتْ أَنْتَ الطَّلاَقُ فَسَكَتَ ثُمَّ قَالَتْ أَنْتَ الطَّلاَقُ فَقَالَ بِفِيكِ الْحَجَرُ . ثُمَّ قَالَتْ أَنْتَ الطَّلاَقُ فَقَالَ بِفِيكِ الْحَجَرُ . فَاخْتَصَمَا إِلَى مَرْوَانَ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ فَاسْتَحْلَفَهُ مَا مَلَّكَهَا إِلاَّ وَاحِدَةً وَرَدَّهَا إِلَيْهِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ قَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ فَكَانَ الْقَاسِمُ يُعْجِبُهُ هَذَا الْقَضَاءُ وَيَرَاهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا سَمِعَ فِي ذَلِكَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ وَأَحَبُّهُ إِلَىَّ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 13

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasim from his father that A'isha, umm al-muminin, proposed to Qurayba bint Abi Umayya on behalf of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. They married her to him and her people found fault with Abd ar-Rahman and said, "We only gave in marriage because of A'isha." A'isha therefore sent for Abd ar-Rahman and told him about it. He gave Qurayba authority over herself and she chose her husband and so there was no divorce.

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أُمِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، أَنَّهَا خَطَبَتْ عَلَى عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ قُرَيْبَةَ بِنْتَ أَبِي أُمَيَّةَ فَزَوَّجُوهُ ثُمَّ إِنَّهُمْ عَتَبُوا عَلَى عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ وَقَالُوا مَا زَوَّجْنَا إِلاَّ عَائِشَةَ فَأَرْسَلَتْ عَائِشَةُ إِلَى عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَجَعَلَ أَمْرَ قُرَيْبَةَ بِيَدِهَا فَاخْتَارَتْ زَوْجَهَا فَلَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ طَلاَقًا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 14

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasim from his father that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave Hafsa bint Abd arRahman in marriage to al-Mundhir ibn az-Zubayr while Abd ar-Rahman was away in Syria. When Abd ar-Rahman arrived, he said, "Shall someone like me have this done to him? Am I the kind of man to have something done to him without his consent?" A'isha spoke to al-Mundhir ibn az-Zubayr, and al-Mundhir said, "It is in the hands of Abd ar-Rahman." Abd ar-Rahman said, "I won't oppose something that you have already completed." Hafsa was confirmed with al-Mundhir, and there was no divorce.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَوَّجَتْ حَفْصَةَ بِنْتَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْمُنْذِرَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ - وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ غَائِبٌ بِالشَّامِ - فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ قَالَ وَمِثْلِي يُصْنَعُ هَذَا بِهِ وَمِثْلِي يُفْتَاتُ عَلَيْهِ فَكَلَّمَتْ عَائِشَةُ الْمُنْذِرَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ فَقَالَ الْمُنْذِرُ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ بِيَدِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ . فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ مَا كُنْتُ لأَرُدَّ أَمْرًا قَضَيْتِيهِ فَقَرَّتْ حَفْصَةُ عِنْدَ الْمُنْذِرِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ طَلاَقًا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 15

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Umar and Abu Hurayra were asked about a man who gave his wife power over herself, and she returned it to him without doing anything with it. They said that there was no divorce. (i.e. The man's giving his wife power over herself was not interpreted as a desire for divorce on his part.)

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، وَأَبَا، هُرَيْرَةَ سُئِلاَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ، يُمَلِّكُ امْرَأَتَهُ أَمْرَهَا فَتَرُدُّ ذَلِكَ إِلَيْهِ وَلاَ تَقْضِي فِيهِ شَيْئًا فَقَالاَ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِطَلاَقٍ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 16

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Said ibn al-Musayyab said, "If a man gives his wife authority over herself, and she does not separate from him and remains with him, there is no divorce."
Malik said that a woman whose husband gave her power over herself and they separated while she was unwilling, had no power to revoke the divorce. She only had power over herself as long as they remained together.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، وَأَبَا، هُرَيْرَةَ سُئِلاَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ، يُمَلِّكُ امْرَأَتَهُ أَمْرَهَا فَتَرُدُّ ذَلِكَ إِلَيْهِ وَلاَ تَقْضِي فِيهِ شَيْئًا فَقَالاَ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِطَلاَقٍ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 16

Yahya related to me from Malik from Jafar ibn Muhammad from his father that Ali ibn Abi Talib said, "When a man takes a vow to abstain from intercourse, divorce does not occur immediately. If four months pass, he must declare his intent and either he is divorced or he revokes his vow . "
Malik said, "That is what is done among us."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ إِذَا آلَى الرَّجُلُ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ لَمْ يَقَعْ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقٌ وَإِنْ مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ حَتَّى يُوقَفَ فَإِمَّا أَنْ يُطَلِّقَ وَإِمَّا أَنْ يَفِيءَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 17

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "When a man makes a vow to abstain from intercourse with his wife and four months have passed he must declare his intent and either he is divorced or he revokes his vow. Divorce does not occur until four months have passed and he continues to abstain."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ آلَى مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَإِنَّهُ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وُقِفَ حَتَّى يُطَلِّقَ أَوْ يَفِيءَ وَلاَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقٌ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ حَتَّى يُوقَفَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 18

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Said al-Musayyab and Abu Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman said about a man who made a vow to abstain from intercourse with his wife, "If four months pass it is a divorce. The husband can go back to his wife as long as she is in her idda."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ آلَى مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَإِنَّهُ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وُقِفَ حَتَّى يُطَلِّقَ أَوْ يَفِيءَ وَلاَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقٌ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ حَتَّى يُوقَفَ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 18

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Marwan ibn al-Hakam decided about a man who had made a vow to abstain from intercourse with his wife, that when four months had passed, it was a divorce and he could return to her as long as she was in her idda.
Malik added, "That was also the opinion of Ibn Shihab."
Malik said that if a man made a vow to abstain from intercourse with his wife and at the end of four months he declared his intent to continue to abstain, he was divorced. He could go back to his wife, but if he did not have intercourse with her before the end of her idda, he had no access to her and he could not go back to her unless he had an excuse - illness, imprisonment, or a similar excuse. His return to her maintained her as his wife. If her idda passed and then he married her after that and did not have intercourse with her until four months had passed and he declared his intent to continue to abstain, divorce was applied to him by the first vow. If four months passed, and he had not returned to her, he had no idda against her nor access because he had married her and then divorced her before touching her.
Malik said that a man who made a vow to abstain from intercourse with his wife and continued to abstain after four months and so divorced her, but then returned and did not touch her and four months were completed before her idda was completed, did not have to declare his intent and divorce did not befall him. If he had intercourse with her before the end of her idda, he was entitled to her. If her idda passed before he had intercourse with her, he had no access to her. This is what Malik preferred of what he had heard on the subject.
Malik said that if a man made a vow to abstain from intercourse with his wife and then divorced her, and the four months of the vow were completed before completion of the idda of the divorce, it counted as two pronouncements of divorce. If he declared his intention to continue to abstain and the idda of the divorce finished before the four months the vow of abstention was not a divorce. That was because the four months had passed and she was not his on that day.
Malik said, "If someone makes a vow not to have intercourse with his wife for a day or a month and then waits until more than four months have passed, it is not ila. Ila only applies to someone who vows more than four months. As for the one who vows not to have intercourse with his wife for four months or less than that, I do not think that it is ila because when the term enters into it at which it stops, he comes out of his oath and he does not have to declare his intention."
Malik said, "If someone vows to his wife not to have intercourse with her until her child has been weaned, that is not ila. I have heard that Ali ibn Abi Talib was asked about that and he did not think that it was ila."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ، كَانَ يَقْضِي فِي الرَّجُلِ إِذَا آلَى مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ أَنَّهَا إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ فَهِيَ تَطْلِيقَةٌ وَلَهُ عَلَيْهَا الرَّجْعَةُ مَا دَامَتْ فِي عِدَّتِهَا . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ كَانَ رَأْىُ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَيُوقَفُ فَيُطَلِّقُ عِنْدَ انْقِضَاءِ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ ثُمَّ يُرَاجِعُ امْرَأَتَهُ أَنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا فَلاَ سَبِيلَ لَهُ إِلَيْهَا وَلاَ رَجْعَةَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ عُذْرٌ مِنْ مَرَضٍ أَوْ سِجْنٍ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْعُذْرِ فَإِنَّ ارْتِجَاعَهُ إِيَّاهَا ثَابِتٌ عَلَيْهَا فَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا ثُمَّ تَزَوَّجَهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وَقَفَ أَيْضًا فَإِنْ لَمْ يَفِئْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ الطَّلاَقُ بِالإِيلاَءِ الأَوَّلِ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ لأَنَّهُ نَكَحَهَا ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمَسَّهَا فَلاَ عِدَّةَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا وَلاَ رَجْعَةَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَيُوقَفُ بَعْدَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَيُطَلِّقُ ثُمَّ يَرْتَجِعُ وَلاَ يَمَسُّهَا فَتَنْقَضِي أَرْبَعَةُ أَشْهُرٍ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا إِنَّهُ لاَ يُوقَفُ وَلاَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقٌ وَإِنَّهُ إِنْ أَصَابَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا كَانَ أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُصِيبَهَا فَلاَ سَبِيلَ لَهُ إِلَيْهَا وَهَذَا أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ ثُمَّ يُطَلِّقُهَا فَتَنْقَضِي الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ قَبْلَ انْقِضَاءِ عِدَّةِ الطَّلاَقِ قَالَ هُمَا تَطْلِيقَتَانِ إِنْ هُوَ وُقِفَ وَلَمْ يَفِئْ وَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّةُ الطَّلاَقِ قَبْلَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَلَيْسَ الإِيلاَءُ بِطَلاَقٍ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الأَرْبَعَةَ الأَشْهُرِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تُوقَفُ بَعْدَهَا مَضَتْ وَلَيْسَتْ لَهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِامْرَأَةٍ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ حَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَ امْرَأَتَهُ يَوْمًا أَوْ شَهْرًا ثُمَّ مَكَثَ حَتَّى يَنْقَضِيَ أَكْثَرُ مِنَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَلاَ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ إِيلاَءً وَإِنَّمَا يُوقَفُ فِي الإِيلاَءِ مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَأَمَّا مَنْ حَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَ امْرَأَتَهُ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ أَوْ أَدْنَى مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَلاَ أَرَى عَلَيْهِ إِيلاَءً لأَنَّهُ إِذَا دَخَلَ الأَجَلُ الَّذِي يُوقَفُ عِنْدَهُ خَرَجَ مِنْ يَمِينِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْهِ وَقْفٌ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ حَلَفَ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَهَا حَتَّى تَفْطِمَ وَلَدَهَا فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَكُونُ إِيلاَءً .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 19

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had asked Ibn Shihab about the ila of the slave. He said that it was like the ila of the free man, and it put an obligation on him. The ila of the slave was two months.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ، كَانَ يَقْضِي فِي الرَّجُلِ إِذَا آلَى مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ أَنَّهَا إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ فَهِيَ تَطْلِيقَةٌ وَلَهُ عَلَيْهَا الرَّجْعَةُ مَا دَامَتْ فِي عِدَّتِهَا . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ كَانَ رَأْىُ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَيُوقَفُ فَيُطَلِّقُ عِنْدَ انْقِضَاءِ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ ثُمَّ يُرَاجِعُ امْرَأَتَهُ أَنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا فَلاَ سَبِيلَ لَهُ إِلَيْهَا وَلاَ رَجْعَةَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ عُذْرٌ مِنْ مَرَضٍ أَوْ سِجْنٍ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْعُذْرِ فَإِنَّ ارْتِجَاعَهُ إِيَّاهَا ثَابِتٌ عَلَيْهَا فَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا ثُمَّ تَزَوَّجَهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وَقَفَ أَيْضًا فَإِنْ لَمْ يَفِئْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ الطَّلاَقُ بِالإِيلاَءِ الأَوَّلِ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ لأَنَّهُ نَكَحَهَا ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمَسَّهَا فَلاَ عِدَّةَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا وَلاَ رَجْعَةَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَيُوقَفُ بَعْدَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَيُطَلِّقُ ثُمَّ يَرْتَجِعُ وَلاَ يَمَسُّهَا فَتَنْقَضِي أَرْبَعَةُ أَشْهُرٍ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا إِنَّهُ لاَ يُوقَفُ وَلاَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقٌ وَإِنَّهُ إِنْ أَصَابَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا كَانَ أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُصِيبَهَا فَلاَ سَبِيلَ لَهُ إِلَيْهَا وَهَذَا أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ ثُمَّ يُطَلِّقُهَا فَتَنْقَضِي الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ قَبْلَ انْقِضَاءِ عِدَّةِ الطَّلاَقِ قَالَ هُمَا تَطْلِيقَتَانِ إِنْ هُوَ وُقِفَ وَلَمْ يَفِئْ وَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّةُ الطَّلاَقِ قَبْلَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَلَيْسَ الإِيلاَءُ بِطَلاَقٍ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الأَرْبَعَةَ الأَشْهُرِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تُوقَفُ بَعْدَهَا مَضَتْ وَلَيْسَتْ لَهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِامْرَأَةٍ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ حَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَ امْرَأَتَهُ يَوْمًا أَوْ شَهْرًا ثُمَّ مَكَثَ حَتَّى يَنْقَضِيَ أَكْثَرُ مِنَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَلاَ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ إِيلاَءً وَإِنَّمَا يُوقَفُ فِي الإِيلاَءِ مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَأَمَّا مَنْ حَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَ امْرَأَتَهُ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ أَوْ أَدْنَى مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَلاَ أَرَى عَلَيْهِ إِيلاَءً لأَنَّهُ إِذَا دَخَلَ الأَجَلُ الَّذِي يُوقَفُ عِنْدَهُ خَرَجَ مِنْ يَمِينِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْهِ وَقْفٌ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ حَلَفَ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَهَا حَتَّى تَفْطِمَ وَلَدَهَا فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَكُونُ إِيلاَءً .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 19

Yahya related to me from Malik from Said ibn Amr ibn Sulaym az- Zuraqi that he asked al-Qasim ibn Muhammad about a man who made divorce conditional on his marrying a woman i.e. if he married her he would automatically divorce her. Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said, "If a man marries a woman whom he has made as his mother's back, i.e. has made haram for him, Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered him not to go near her if he married her until he had done the kaffara for pronouncing dhihar."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ سُلَيْمٍ الزُّرَقِيِّ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، طَلَّقَ امْرَأَةً إِنْ هُوَ تَزَوَّجَهَا فَقَالَ الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّ رَجُلاً جَعَلَ امْرَأَةً عَلَيْهِ كَظَهْرِ أُمِّهِ إِنْ هُوَ تَزَوَّجَهَا فَأَمَرَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ إِنْ هُوَ تَزَوَّجَهَا أَنْ لاَ يَقْرَبَهَا حَتَّى يُكَفِّرَ كَفَّارَةَ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 20

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man asked al-Qasim ibn Muhammad and Sulayman ibn Yasar about a man who pronounced dhihar from his wife before he had married her. They said, "If he marries her, he must not touch her until he has done the kaffara for pronouncing dhihar."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، سَأَلَ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ تَظَاهَرَ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَنْكِحَهَا فَقَالاَ إِنْ نَكَحَهَا فَلاَ يَمَسَّهَا حَتَّى يُكَفِّرَ كَفَّارَةَ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 21

Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that his father said that a man who pronounced a dhihar from his four wives in one statement, had only to do one kaffara. Yahya related the same as that to me from Malik from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman.
Malik said, "That is what is done among us. Allah, the Exalted said about the kaffara for pronouncing dhihar, 'It is to free a slave before they touch one another. If he does not find the means to do that, then fasting for two consecutive months before they touch one another. If he cannot do that, it is to feed sixty poor people. ' " (Sura 58 ayats 4,5).
Malik said that a man who pronounced dhihar from his wife on various occasions had only to do one kaffara. If he pronounced dhihar, and then did kaffara, and then pronounced dhihar after he had done the kaffara, he had to do kaffara again.
Malik said, "Some one who pronounces dhihar from his wife and then has intercourse with her before he has done kaffara, only has to do one kaffara. He must abstain from her until he does kaffara and ask forgiveness of Allah. That is the best of what I have heard. "
Malik said, "It is the same with dhihar using any prohibited relations of fosterage and ancestry."
Malik said, "Women have no dhihar."
Malik said that he had heard that the commentary on the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, "Those of you who pronounce the dhihar about their wives, and then retract what they have said," (Sura 56 ayat 3), was that a man pronounced dhihar on his wife and then decided to keep her and have intercourse with her. If he decided on that, he must do kaffara. If he divorced her and did not decide to retract his dhihar of her and to keep her and have intercourse with her, there would be no kaffara incumbent on him.
Maliksaid, "If he marries her after that, he does not touch her until he has completed the kaffara of pronouncing dhihar."
Malik said that if a man who pronounced dhihar from his slave-girl wanted to have intercourse with her, he had to do the kaffara of the dhihar before he could sleep with her.
Malik said, "There is no ila in a man's dhihar unless it is evident that he does not intend to retract his dhihar."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ فِي رَجُلٍ تَظَاهَرَ مِنْ أَرْبَعَةِ نِسْوَةٍ لَهُ بِكَلِمَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ كَفَّارَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ .
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى فِي كَفَّارَةِ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ {فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَتَمَاسَّا }. {فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَتَمَاسَّا فَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَإِطْعَامُ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِينًا} . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَتَظَاهَرُ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فِي مَجَالِسَ مُتَفَرِّقَةٍ قَالَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ كَفَّارَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَإِنْ تَظَاهَرَ ثُمَّ كَفَّرَ ثُمَّ تَظَاهَرَ بَعْدَ أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ فَعَلَيْهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ أَيْضًا . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ تَظَاهَرَ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ ثُمَّ مَسَّهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ كَفَّارَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ وَيَكُفُّ عَنْهَا حَتَّى يُكَفِّرَ وَلْيَسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ وَذَلِكَ أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالظِّهَارُ مِنْ ذَوَاتِ الْمَحَارِمِ مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَالنَّسَبِ سَوَاءٌ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ ظِهَارٌ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى {وَالَّذِينَ يُظَاهِرُونَ مِنْ نِسَائِهِمْ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُوا}. قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَنَّ تَفْسِيرَ ذَلِكَ أَنْ يَتَظَاهَرَ الرَّجُلُ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ ثُمَّ يُجْمِعَ عَلَى إِمْسَاكِهَا وَإِصَابَتِهَا فَإِنْ أَجْمَعَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فَقَدْ وَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ وَإِنْ طَلَّقَهَا وَلَمْ يُجْمِعْ بَعْدَ تَظَاهُرِهِ مِنْهَا عَلَى إِمْسَاكِهَا وَإِصَابَتِهَا فَلاَ كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ لَمْ يَمَسَّهَا حَتَّى يُكَفِّرَ كَفَّارَةَ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَتَظَاهَرُ مِنْ أَمَتِهِ إِنَّهُ إِنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُصِيبَهَا فَعَلَيْهِ كَفَّارَةُ الظِّهَارِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَطَأَهَا . قَالَ مَالِكٌ لاَ يَدْخُلُ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ إِيلاَءٌ فِي تَظَاهُرِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ مُضَارًّا لاَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَفِيءَ مِنْ تَظَاهُرِهِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 22

Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that he heard a man ask Urwa ibn az-Zubayr about a man who said to his wife, "Any woman I marry along with you as long as you live will be like my mother's back to me." Urwa ibn az-Zubayr said, "The freeing of slaves is enough to release him from that."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَجُلاً، يَسْأَلُ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، قَالَ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ كُلُّ امْرَأَةٍ أَنْكِحُهَا عَلَيْكِ مَا عِشْتِ فَهِيَ عَلَىَّ كَظَهْرِ أُمِّي . فَقَالَ عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ يُجْزِئُهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 23

ahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab about the dhihar of a slave. He said, "It is like the dhihar of a free man."
Malik said, "He meant that the same conditions were applied in both cases."
Malik said, "The dhihar of the slave is incumbent on him, and the fasting of the slave in the dhihar is two months. "
Malik said that there was no ila for a slave who pronounced a dhihar from his wife. That was because if he were to fast the kaffara for pronouncing a dhihar, the divorce of the ila would come to him before he had finished the fast.

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ عَنْ ظِهَارِ الْعَبْدِ، فَقَالَ نَحْوُ ظِهَارِ الْحُرِّ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ يُرِيدُ أَنَّهُ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ كَمَا يَقَعُ عَلَى الْحُرِّ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَظِهَارُ الْعَبْدِ عَلَيْهِ وَاجِبٌ وَصِيَامُ الْعَبْدِ فِي الظِّهَارِ شَهْرَانِ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْعَبْدِ يَتَظَاهَرُ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يَدْخُلُ عَلَيْهِ إِيلاَءٌ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَوْ ذَهَبَ يَصُومُ صِيَامَ كَفَّارَةِ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقُ الإِيلاَءِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَفْرُغَ مِنْ صِيَامِهِ .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 24

Yahya related to me from Malik from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad that A'isha umm al-muminin, said, "There were three sunnas established in connection with Barira:
firstly was that when she was set free she was given her choice about her husband, secondly, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said about her, 'The right of inheritance belongs to the person who has set a person free,' thirdly, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came in and there was a pot with meat on the boil. Bread and condiments were brought to him from the stock of the house. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Didn't I see a pot with meat in it?' They said, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah. That is meat which was given as sadaqa for Barira, and you do not eat sadaqa.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is sadaqa for her, and it is a gift for us.' "

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أُمِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ كَانَ فِي بَرِيرَةَ ثَلاَثُ سُنَنٍ فَكَانَتْ إِحْدَى السُّنَنِ الثَّلاَثِ أَنَّهَا أُعْتِقَتْ فَخُيِّرَتْ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ " . وَدَخَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَالْبُرْمَةُ تَفُورُ بِلَحْمٍ فَقُرِّبَ إِلَيْهِ خُبْزٌ وَأُدْمٌ مِنْ أُدْمِ الْبَيْتِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " أَلَمْ أَرَ بُرْمَةً فِيهَا لَحْمٌ " . فَقَالُوا بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ لَحْمٌ تُصُدِّقَ بِهِ عَلَى بَرِيرَةَ وَأَنْتَ لاَ تَأْكُلُ الصَّدَقَةَ . فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " هُوَ عَلَيْهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَهُوَ لَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ " .

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References

Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 25

ahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said that a female slave who was the wife of a slave and then was set free, had the right of choice as long as he did not have intercourse with her.
Malik said, "If her husband has intercourse with her and she claims that she did not know, she still has the right of choice. If she is suspect and one does not believe her claim of ignorance, then she has no choice after he has had intercourse with her."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي الأَمَةِ تَكُونُ تَحْتَ الْعَبْدِ فَتَعْتِقُ إِنَّ الأَمَةَ لَهَا الْخِيَارُ مَا لَمْ يَمَسَّهَا . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنْ مَسَّهَا زَوْجُهَا فَزَعَمَتْ أَنَّهَا جَهِلَتْ أَنَّ لَهَا الْخِيَارَ فَإِنَّهَا تُتَّهَمُ وَلاَ تُصَدَّقُ بِمَا ادَّعَتْ مِنَ الْجَهَالَةِ وَلاَ خِيَارَ لَهَا بَعْدَ أَنْ يَمَسَّهَا .

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Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 26

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az- Zubayr that a mawla of the tribe of Banu Adi called Zabra told him that she had been the wife of a slave when she was a slave-girl. Then she was set free and she sent a message to Hafsa, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Hafsa called her and said, "I will tell you something., but I would prefer that you did not act upon it. You have authority over yourself as long as your husband does not have intercourse with you. If he has intercourse with you, you have no authority at all." Therefore she pronounced her divorce from him three times.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّ مَوْلاَةً، لِبَنِي عَدِيٍّ يُقَالُ لَهَا زَبْرَاءُ أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّهَا كَانَتْ تَحْتَ عَبْدٍ وَهِيَ أَمَةٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَعَتَقَتْ قَالَتْ فَأَرْسَلَتْ إِلَىَّ حَفْصَةُ زَوْجُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَدَعَتْنِي فَقَالَتْ إِنِّي مُخْبِرَتُكِ خَبَرًا وَلاَ أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَصْنَعِي شَيْئًا إِنَّ أَمْرَكِ بِيَدِكِ مَا لَمْ يَمْسَسْكِ زَوْجُكِ فَإِنْ مَسَّكِ فَلَيْسَ لَكِ مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَىْءٌ . قَالَتْ فَقُلْتُ هُوَ الطَّلاَقُ ثُمَّ الطَّلاَقُ ثُمَّ الطَّلاَقُ . فَفَارَقَتْهُ ثَلاَثًا .

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References

Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Divorce, Hadith 27